Utilization of Construction and Demolition (C&D) Waste and Industrial Inorganic Wastes in Cement Manufacturing

  • Parmanand OjhaEmail author
  • Pinky Pandey
  • Kåre Helge Karstensen
  • Palash Kumar Saha


Annual generation of C&D waste and industrial inorganic wastes in India is estimated to be 170 million tonnes and >300 million tonnes, respectively, which is projected to increase with the growing urbanization and economic development. Considering the constant expansion of the cement industry and its need to sustain, waste valourization has emerged as a great opportunity for the industry. Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) has prescribed standards for use of C&D waste as coarse and fine aggregates, fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) as blending materials in cement manufacturing and other inorganic wastes as performance improvers in cement manufacturing. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of inorganic wastes suggest their potential to be utilized as alternative raw materials in cement manufacturing. The addition of red mud can improve the strength properties of cement and resistance to sulphate attack. Spent Pot Liner (SPL) can be gainfully utilized as a mineralizer in cement raw mix. NCCBM has explored use of Jarosite as set controller in place of gypsum, use of copper slag and lead–zinc slag as alternative raw materials and as blending materials in Portland Slag Cement (PSC) and use of marble dust as decarbonated raw material and as blending material in Portland Limestone Cement (PLC). There are, however, limited number of studies for use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), recycled masonry aggregate (RMA) and fines extracted from recycled concrete, as alternative raw materials in cement manufacturing. As a part of the Indo-Norwegian project on co-processing, NCCBM is currently exploring the possibility of utilization of fines extracted from recycled concrete aggregate and recycled aggregate as alternative raw materials in cement manufacturing. This paper contains potential utilization and further opportunities for increased utilization of C&D waste and industrial inorganic wastes in cement manufacturing process.


C&D waste Fly ash Slag Red mud Jarosite Cement 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Parmanand Ojha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pinky Pandey
    • 1
  • Kåre Helge Karstensen
    • 2
    • 3
  • Palash Kumar Saha
    • 3
  1. 1.NCCBMBallabgarhIndia
  2. 2.Asian Institute of TechnologyKhlong LuangThailand
  3. 3.SINTEFTrondheimNorway

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