Sustainable Bio Medical Waste Management—Case Study in India

  • Vandana
  • V. Venkateswara Rao
  • Sadhan Kumar GhoshEmail author


The Biomedical waste (BMW) is an area of concern which has a direct impact on the health and human safety. Management of BMW may be an ethical, social and obligation of all supporting and funding health-care activities. The scavengers sort out open, unprotected health-care wastes for recycling, and reuse of syringe, bottles and other medical aides compounded for BMW problems without using personal protective equipment (PPE)s, namely, gloves, masks, shoes etc. It’s been ascertained that 10–25% of BMW is dangerous, whereas remaining 75–95% is non-hazardous. The dangerous part of the waste involves the physical, chemical, and/or microbiological risk to the health-care staff that is associated in handling, treatment, and disposal of waste. BWM rules in India were introduced first in the year 1998 and with the recent revision on the Bio Medical Waste management rules 2016 there after the 2018 amendments to boost the segregation, transportation, and disposal strategies, to decrease environmental impact therefore on amendment the dynamic of BMW disposal and treatment in India. The objectives of this article are, (a) assessing the present status of handling and treatment system of hospital bio-medical solid wastes, (b) analysing the requirements in BMW Management Rules 2016, (c) identifying issue and challenges in the practical problems for its effective implementation, the major drawback of conventional technological interventions, the latest technologies for BMW disposal, and potential solutions, (d) comparing the SWM system in India with a few developed countries like USA, UK, Japan and S. Korea and (e) to present a case study on the BMW treatment facility at Mangalgiri, AP BMWM facility. This paper will be helpful for making strategies in different states in India and other developing countries for the management of biomedical wastes.


Biomedical waste Treatment Autoclave Incineration Business model 



All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with ethical standards of the organisational committee and informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in the study. Authors appreciate the organisation as well as the International Society of Waste Management, Air and Water (ISWMAW) for generous support towards the successful completion of the study.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vandana
    • 1
  • V. Venkateswara Rao
    • 1
  • Sadhan Kumar Ghosh
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Safenviron Bio Medical Waste Treatment FacilityMangalgiriIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

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