The Problem of the Environment in Pedology

  • L. S. Vygotsky
Part of the Perspectives in Cultural-Historical Research book series (PCHR, volume 7)


Vygotsky begins by saying that just as pedology does not undertake the study of heredity for its own sake, pedology takes the environment of the child only in relation to the child’s development. He suggests that relational indicators are the way to accomplish this. He then offers examples of what these relational indicators might look like: one for consciousness and one for speech. He concludes by asserting that ontogenesis is unlike other forms of development because of the presence of a final, ideal form as a guide from the very outset of development and drawing two important conclusions from this for all child development. First, higher functions always come to us from our social situation of development. Second, where the ideal form is not represented in the social situation, development will suffer.


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  3. Vygotsky, L. S. (1997). The history of the development of the higher mental functions. In The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky (Vol. 4). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. S. Vygotsky
    • 1
  1. 1.MoscowRussia

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