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Management of Patient with Scoliosis

  • Monica S. Tandon
  • Aastha Dhingra
  • Vineeth Varma
Chapter
  • 25 Downloads

Abstract

Surgery for correction of pediatric scoliosis typically involves an extensive multilevel instrumented fusion of the spine and is associated with a risk of major blood loss, hemodynamic instability, increased transfusion requirements, neurological injury, postoperative pulmonary dysfunction, and positioning-related complications. Complexity of the surgery, as well as the incidence and severity of complications, is higher in patients with nonidiopathic scoliosis (e.g., neuromuscular scoliosis, congenital scoliosis) as compared to those with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Perioperatively, the neuroanesthetist takes several perioperative measures to decrease the incidence of these complications, including a comprehensive preoperative evaluation for detection of potential risk factors; preoperative optimization of modifiable risk factors such as cardiopulmonary dysfunction, anemia, and poor nutritional status; intraoperative administration of antifibrinolytics and “targeted blood pressure management” for reduction of intraoperative blood loss; implementation of “spinal cord protection measures” and multimodality neuromonitoring for preservation of the neurologic integrity; and meticulous postoperative care with a multimodal pain relief and an early mobilization strategy. The choice of anesthetic drugs for these surgeries is largely determined by their compatibility with neuroelectrophysiological monitoring. Patients with nonidiopathic scoliosis merit a more intensive and multidisciplinary approach, for a better clinical outcome.

Keywords

Scoliosis Spine Spine fusion Anesthesia Complications Monitoring Neuromonitoring Restrictive lung defect Spinal cord protection Controlled hypotension Antifibrinolytics 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monica S. Tandon
    • 1
  • Aastha Dhingra
    • 2
  • Vineeth Varma
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, G.B. Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and ResearchMaulana Azad Medical College and Affiliated Hospitals, Delhi UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiaMax Super-specialty HospitalGhaziabadIndia
  3. 3.Department of OrthopedicsLok Nayak Jai Prakash Narayan Hospital, Maulana Azad Medical College and Affiliated Hospitals, Delhi UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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