Analytical Methods in Biodiesel Production

  • R. Vinoth KumarEmail author
  • I. Ganesh Moorthy
  • Lalit Goswami
  • G. Pugazhenthi
  • Kannan Pakshirajan
  • Adrián M. T. Silva
  • Sergio Morales-Torres
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)


Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel that can be obtainable from renewable sources and utilized in diesel vehicles. The physical characteristics of biodiesel are indistinguishable from petroleum diesel, therefore, it is currently considered as a best alternative fuel. However, the quality of the biodiesel is very important in order to commercialize and get acceptance for marketing. There is a necessity to undertake a quality analysis of biodiesel to assess the chemical properties. Several existing analytical methods that are to evaluate the characteristics of biodiesel is mainly categorized into chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Appropriate analytical techniques can be adopted to measure the impurities preciously even at lower concentrations. Hence, this chapter describes the developments in biodiesel analysis including chromatography methods such as gas chromatography (GC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), liquid chromatography (LC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), thin layer chromatography (TLC) and spectroscopic methods such as infra-red (IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS), ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (P–NMR). Other methods namely viscometry, refractive index, titration for determining free fatty acids, wet chemical methods, enzymatic methods, and methods used to test for oxidation stability and new low-cost and greener alternatives in the analytical field are also discussed. Further, this chapter contemplates the assessment of various available methods, accounting their merits and demerits, and provides some improvements and selection of suitable analytical methods for biodiesel production.


Biodiesel Analytical methods Chromatographic methods Spectroscopic methods Transesterification 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Vinoth Kumar
    • 1
    • 6
    Email author
  • I. Ganesh Moorthy
    • 2
  • Lalit Goswami
    • 3
  • G. Pugazhenthi
    • 3
    • 4
  • Kannan Pakshirajan
    • 3
    • 5
  • Adrián M. T. Silva
    • 6
  • Sergio Morales-Torres
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Andhra PradeshTadepalligudemIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology, Centre for Research, Bioprocess and Downstream Processing LaboratoryKamaraj College of Engineering and TechnologyVirudhunagarIndia
  3. 3.Center for the Environment, Indian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia
  5. 5.Department of Biosciences and BioengineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia
  6. 6.Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering–Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE–LCM)Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  7. 7.Carbon Materials Research Group, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain

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