Application of Chaos-Based Firefly Algorithm Optimized Controller for Automatic Generation Control of Two Area Interconnected Power System with Energy Storage Unit and UPFC

  • K. JagatheesanEmail author
  • B. Anand
  • Soumadip Sen
  • Sourav Samanta
Part of the Springer Tracts in Nature-Inspired Computing book series (STNIC)


Firefly algorithm (FFA) optimization technique is a popular continuous optimization technique and also widely applied to tune controller gain values of proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller. In the chaos-based firefly algorithm, the chaotic maps are included to improve the randomness when generating new solutions and thereby to increase the diversity of the population. It increases global search mobility for robust global optimization. The investigated power system incorporates two thermal power systems, and two areas are interconnected via tie-line. Also, this work system is equipped with a secondary (PID) controller. The gain value of the controller is optimized by implementing chaos-based firefly algorithm (CFFA) by applying step load in area 1. The effectiveness and supremacy of proposed optimization technique tuned controller performance are verified by comparing genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique and firefly algorithm tuned PID controller performance in the same interconnected power system. The proposed optimization technique-based controller response is evaluated by considering time domain specifications parameters of the proposed optimization technique-based controller response. Further, effectiveness of recommended optimization technique is verified by adding nonlinearity’s [generation rate constraint (GRC) and governor dead band (GCB)] in the investigated power system with connecting unified power flow controller (UPFC) is applied, and it is a flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) controller family device connected parallel to the tie-line. Further, hydrogen aqua electrolyzer (HAE) energy storage unit with a fuel cell is connected in area 2 for improving the performance of the system during sudden load demand. Finally, simulation result proved that the proposed CFFA technique gives better controlled performance compared with GA, PSO and FFA technique tuned controller performance in terms of fast settled response with a minimum peak over and undershoot, damping oscillations during unexpected load demand conditions.


Interconnected thermal power system Load frequency control Optimization PID controller Chaos-based firefly algorithm Cost function 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Jagatheesan
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. Anand
    • 2
  • Soumadip Sen
    • 3
  • Sourav Samanta
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringPaavai Engineering CollegeNamakkalIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electronics and Instrumentation EngineeringHindusthan College of Engineering and TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science & EngineeringUniversity Institute of Technology, BUBurdwanIndia

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