Design PID Controllers for the Air-Conditioning Process Using Genetic Algorithm

  • Bin Hao
  • Yu Chao SunEmail author
  • Qing Chun Zheng
  • Shi Yue Zhang
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1060)


In this paper, we design a qualified proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for air-conditioning process. Two-degree freedom control structure is designed for decoupling the set-point following and attenuation of load disturbances. The optimization algorithms are used for guaranteeing enough ability to reject load disturbances to the robustness constraints. The control performance of typical tuning methods is often relatively poor although it is quite user-friendly. On the other hand, the controller designed by optimizing algorithms performs better while it is computationally expensive. The novel algorithm is designed to overcome this contradiction. The method based on genetic algorithm is convenient and practical. Finally, the humidity conditioning process experiment is used to prove the effectiveness of our method.


PID controller  Air-conditioning Genetic algorithm 



This work was supported by Tianjin applied basic and frontier technology research plan (Grant No. 15JCZDJC32800), the Science and Technology Support Program of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 17PTYHZ00060), Special funds project of Tianjin Municipal Commission of industry and information technology (Grant No. 201803104).


  1. 1.
    Koivo HN, Tanttu JT. Tuning of PID controllers: survey of SISO and MIMO techniques. In: Proceedings of the IFAC intelligent tuning and adaptive control symposium; 1991. p. 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yamamoto S, Hashimoto I. Present status and future needs: the view from Japanese industry. In: Proceedings of the fourth international conference on chemical process control, Texas; 1991.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Astrom KJ. PID controllers: theory, design and tuning. Instrument Society of America; 1995. p. 5–6.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Åström KJ, Hägglund T. Revisiting the Ziegler-Nichols step response method for PID control. J Process Control. 2004;14(6):635–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dey C, Mudi RK. An improved auto-tuning scheme for PID controllers. ISA Trans. 2009;48(4):396–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hägglund T, Åström KJ. Revisiting The Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules for Pi control. Asian J Control. 2002;4(4):364–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hägglund T, Åström KJ. Revisiting the Ziegler–Nichols tuning rules for PI control—part II the frequency response method. Asian J Control. 2004;6(4):469–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shih YP, Chen CJ. On the weighting factors of the quadratic criterion in optimal control. Int J Control. 1974;19(5):947–55.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Skogestad S. Simple analytic rules for model reduction and PID controller tuning. J Process Control. 2003;13(4):291–309.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Åström KJ, Panagopoulos H, Hägglund T. Design of PI controllers based on non-convex optimization. Automatica. 1998;34(5):585–601.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Panagopoulos H, Åström KJ, Hägglund T. Design of PID controllers based on constrained optimisation. IEE Proc-Control Theory Appl. 2002;149(1):32–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nandong J, Zang Z. High-performance multi-scale control scheme for stable, integrating and unstable time-delay processes. J Process Control. 2013;23(10):1333–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boiko I. Design of non-parametric process-specific optimal tuning rules for PID control of flow loops. J Franklin Inst. 2014;351(2):964–85.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Akaike H. A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Trans Autom Control. 1974;19(6):716–23.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bi Q, Cai WJ, Lee EL, et al. Robust identification of first-order plus dead-time model from step response. Control Eng Pract. 1999;7(1):71–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wu H, Su W, Liu Z. PID controllers: design and tuning methods. In: 2014 IEEE 9th conference on industrial electronics and applications (ICIEA). IEEE; 2014. p. 808–13.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bin Hao
    • 1
  • Yu Chao Sun
    • 1
    Email author
  • Qing Chun Zheng
    • 2
  • Shi Yue Zhang
    • 2
  1. 1.Zhonghuan Information CollegeTianjin University of TechnologyTianjinChina
  2. 2.Tianjin University of TechnologyTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations