Advertisement

Rice Production, Augmentation, Escalation, and Yield Under Water Stress

  • U. Maalik
  • M. Farid
  • M. Zubair
  • S. Ali
  • M. Riwan
  • M. Shafqat
  • H. K. Ishaq
Chapter

Abstract

Rice (Oryza Sativa) is a grass and highly stipulated cereal crop. Water stress is an existing and future trauma to rice production. It severely manipulates plant growth and production that ultimately results in yield loss. Cell size, molecular activities, tissue formation, organ establishment, flower formation, reproduction mechanism, grain fabrication, and seed maturation are partially or fully interrupted. Flowering stage is more susceptible to water stress. Reproductive organs are structurally and functionally influenced. Fertilization failure or grain filling loss and immature seed formation could result. Yield loss happens less severely when water stress occurs during vegetative phases but is more severe during panicle growth. Water stress and its tolerance to rice crop are therefore considered the critical issue under study and research. Various institutes and scientists worldwide are trying to explore new ways and schemes to overcome this strain. New ways are being investigated by providing suitable alternative rice harvesting strategies than traditional ways of cropping. Most of the Asian countries are still habitually grown rice in abundance water as they are doing so from over the years. In different agro-ecosystems, water is going to scarce, but it is provided by the farmer by fetching through different sources. Because farmers are in fear of crop loss and yield loss in case water is unavailable to their routine cropping, they must be encouraged by introducing water efficient use and water stress-tolerant practices in rice cropping. Scientific exertions in this contemplate still in progress to achieve free of yield loss adopted policies and approaches. This assessment is a part of scientific advancement to examine and inspect rice crop effects under water stress.

Keywords

Rice crop Rice production Rice augmentation Rice yield Water stress 

References

  1. Aggarwal PK, Bandhyopadhyay SK, Pathak H, Kalra N, Chander S, Kumar S (2000) Analysis of yield trends of the rice-wheat system in north-western India. Outlook Agric 29:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arif C, Setiawan BI, Sofiyuddin HA, Martief LM (2013) Enhanced water use efficiency by intermittent irrigation for irrigated rice in Indonesia. J Islamic Perspect Sci Technol Soc 1(1):12–17Google Scholar
  3. Bates BC, Kundzewicz ZW, Wu S, Palutikof JP (2008) Climate change and water. In: Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, Secretariat, Geneva, p 210. http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/tp-climate-changewater.htm
  4. Belder P, Bouman BAM, Cabangon R, Lu G, Quilang EJP, Li YH, Spiertz JHJ, Tuong TP (2004) Effect of water-saving irrigation on rice yield and water use in typical lowland conditions in Asia. Agric Water Manag 65:193–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boonjung H, Fukai S (1996) Effects of soil water deficit at different growth stages on rice growth and yield under upland conditions, 2. Phenology, biomass production and yield. Field Crop Res 48:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borrell AK, Fukai S, Garside AL (1993) Saturated soil culture: a new concept for irrigated rice Production in tropical Australia. In: McDonald GK, Bellotti WD (eds) Farming-from paddock to plate. Proceedings of the 7th Australian Agronomy Conference, 19–24 September 1993, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouman BAM (2007) A conceptual framework for the improvement of crop water productivity at different spatial scales. Agric Syst 93:43–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouman BAM, Peng S, Castaneda AR, Visperas RM (2005) Yield and water use of irrigated tropical aerobic rice systems. Agric Water Manag 74:87–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouman BAM, Tuong TP (2001) Field water management to save water and increase its productivity in irrigation rice. Agric Water Manag 49:11–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cai Y, Wang W, Zhu Z, Zhang Z, Langm Y, Zhu Q (2006) Effects of water stress during grain-filling period on rice grain yield and its quality under different nitrogen levels. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 17(7):1201–1206PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Carlos ACC, Orivaldo A, Ragerio PS, Gustavo PM (2008) Grain quality of upland rice cultivars in response to cropping systems in the Brazilian tropical savanna. Sci Agric, (Piracicaba Braz) 65(5):468–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Castaneda AR, Bouman BAM, Peng S, Visperas RM (2003) The potential of aerobic rice to reduce water use in water-scarce irrigated low-lands in tropics. In: Bouman BAM, Hengsdijk H, Hardy B, Bindraban PS, Toung TP, Ladha JK (eds) Water-wise rice production. International Rice Research Institute, Los BanosGoogle Scholar
  13. Devries AP, Le TS (1970) Electron-microscopy on anther tissue and pollen of male sterile and fertile wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Euphytica 19:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dingkuhn M, Gal PYL (1996) Effect of drainage date on yield and dry matter partitioning in irrigated rice. Field Crop Res 46:117–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dorion S, Lalonde S, Saini HS (1996) Induction of male sterility in wheat by meiotic-stage water deficit is preceded by a decline in invertase activity and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in anthers. Plant Physiol 111:137–145PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ekanayake IJ, Steponkus PL, Dedatta SK (1990) Sensitivity of pollination to water deficits at anthesis in upland rice. Crop Sci 30:310–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farooq M, Kobayashi N, Wahid A, Ito O, Basar SMA (2009) Strategies for producing more rice with less water. Adv Agron 101:351–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fischer RA, Santiveri F, Vidal IR (2002) Crop rotation, tillage and crop residue management for wheat and maize in the sub-humid tropical highlands. Field Crop Res 79(2–3):107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Food and Agriculture Organization/International Rice Research Institute (2006) FAO food and nutrition series. FAO, Rome, p 26Google Scholar
  20. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (1998) Obesity: preventing and managing global epidemic, WHO technical report, Geneva, Switzerland, pp 11–12Google Scholar
  21. Frei M, Becker K (2003) Studies on the in vitro starch digestibility and glycemic index of six different indigenous rice cultivars from the Philippines. J Food Chem 83:395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. GRiSP (Global Rice Science Partnership) (2013) Rice Alamance, 4th edn. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, 283p. Website: www.cgiar.org/rice-grisp
  23. Hossain M, Fischer KS (1995) Rice research for food security and sustainable agricultural development in Asia: achievements and challenges. GeoJournal 35:286–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hu L, Liang W, Yin C, Cui X, Zong J, Wang X, Hu JZD (2011) Rice MAD S 3 regulates ROS homeostasis during late anther development. Plant Cell 23:515–533PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ishima T, Taira H, Mikoshiba K (1974) Effect of nitrogenous fertilizer application and protein content in milled rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep Nat Food Res Inst 29:9–15Google Scholar
  26. Jin Y, Yang H, Wai Z, Ma H, Ge X (2013) Rice male development under drought stress: phenotypic changes and stage-dependent transcriptomic reprogramming. Mol Plant 6(5):1630–1645PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Joppa LR, Mcneal FH, Welsh JR (1996) Pollen and anther development in cytoplasmic male sterile wheat (Triticum Aestivum L). Crop Sci 6:296–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Juliano BO (1993) Rice in human nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
  29. Jung KH, Han MJ, Lee YS, Kim YW, Hwang I, Kim MJ, Kim YK, Nahm BH, An G (2005) Rice undeveloped Tapetum 1 is a major regulator of early tapetum development. Plant Cell 17:296–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koojul PK, Minhas JS, Nunes C, Sheoran IS, Siani HS (2005) Selective transcriptional down-regulation of anther invertases precedes the failure of pollen development in water- stressed wheat. J Exp Bot 56:179–190Google Scholar
  31. Krishnan P, Rao AVS (2005) Effect of genotype and environment on seed yield and quality of rice. J Agric Sci 143:283–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kumar A, Verulkar SB, Mandal NP, Variar M, Shukla VD, Dwivedi JL, Singh BN, Singh ON, Swain P, Mall AK, Robin S, Chandrababu R, Jain A, Haefele SM, Piepho HP, Raman A (2012) High-yielding, drought –tolerant, stable rice genotypes for the shallow rainfed lowland drought-prone ecosystem. Field Crop Res 133:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li N, Zhang DS, Liu HS, Yin CS, Li XX, Liang WQ, Yuan Z, Xu B, Chu HW, Wang J (2006) The rice tapetum degeneration retardation gene is required for tapetum degradation and another development. Plant Cell 18:2999–3014PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lafitte HR, Courtois B (2002) Interpreting cultivar-environment interactions for yield in upland rice assigning value to drought-adaptive traits. Crop Sci 42:1409–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lalonde S, Beebe DU, Siani HS (1997) Early signs of disruption of wheat anther development associated with the induction of male sterility by meiotic-stage water deficit. Sex Plant Reprod 10:40–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lampayan RM, Bouman BAM, Dios JLd, Lactaoen AT, Espiritu AJ, Norte TM, Quilang EJP, Tabbal DF, Liorca LP, Scoiano JB, Corpuz AA, Malasa RB, Vicmudo VR (2004) Adaption of water saving technologies in rice production in the Philippines. International Rice Research Institute/Philippines National Irrigation Administration, Groundwater Irrigation System Reactivation Project//Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhiRice), Los Baños/Tarlac/Nueva EcijaGoogle Scholar
  37. Molden D (1997) Accounting for water use and productivity, SWIM paper 1. International Irrigation Management Institute, ColomboGoogle Scholar
  38. Namuco S, Otoole JC (1986) Reproductive stage water-stress and sterility. 1. Effect of stress during meiosis. Crop Sci 26:317–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oko AO, Ubi BE, Efisue AA, Dambaba N (2012) Comparative analysis of the chemical nutrient composition of selected local and newly introduced rice varieties grown in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Int J Agric Forestry 2(2):16–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. O’Toole TC (2004) Rice water: The final frontier. In: First International Conference on Rice for Future, August 31–September 2, 2004, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  41. Pandey A, Kumar A, Pandey DS, Thongbam PD (2014) Rice quality under water stress. Indian J Adv Plant Res (IJAPR) 1(2):23–26Google Scholar
  42. Pandey S, Bhandari H, Hardy B (2007) Economics costs of drought and Rice farmers’ coping mechanisms: a cross-country comparative analysis. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, p 203Google Scholar
  43. Prasad v, Hymavathi A, Babu V, Longvah T (2017) Nutritional composition in relation to glycemic potential of popular Indian rice varieties. Food Chem 238(2018):29–34PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Probart CK, Bird PJ, Parker KA (1993) Diet and athletic performance. Med Clin J North Am 5:77–757Google Scholar
  45. Rosegrant MW, Paisner MS, Meijer S, Witcover J (2001) Global food projections to 2020: emerging trends and alternative future. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, p 206Google Scholar
  46. Renmin W. and Yuanshu D., 1989, Studies on ecological factors of rice from heading to maturity I. Effect of different soil moisture content on fertilization, grain filling and grain quality of early indica rice. J Zhejiang Univ 1. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTALZJNY198901002.htm
  47. Saini HS, Westage ME (2000) Reproductive development in grain crops during drought. Adv Agron 68:59–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Saini HS, Lalonde S (1998) Injuries to reproductive development under water stress, and their consequences for crop productivity. J Crop Prod 1:223–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Saini HS (1997) Effects of water stress on male gametophyte development in plants. Sex Plant Reprod 10:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Saini HS, Sedgley M, Aspinall D (1984) Development anatomy in wheat of male-sterility induced by heat-stress, water deficit or abscisic acid. Aust J Plant Physiol 11:243–253Google Scholar
  51. Saini HS, Sedgley M, Aspinall D (1983) Effect of heat-stress during floral development on pollen-tube growth and ovary anatomy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Austr J Plant Physiol 10:137–144Google Scholar
  52. Samonte S, Wilson LT, McClung AM, Tarpley L (2001) Seasonal dynamics of non-structural carbohydrate in 15 diverse rice genotypes. Crop Sci 41:902–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Satake T, Yoshida S (1978) High temperature induced sterility in indica rice at flowering. Jpn J Crop Sci 47:6–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shi J, Tan XH, Yu XH, Liu Y, Liang W, Ranathunge K, Franke RB, Schreiber L, Kai G, Shanklin J et al (2011) Defective pollen wall is required for anther and microspore development in rice and encodes a fatty acyl carrier protein reductase. Plant Cell 23:2225–2246PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sheoran S, Saini HS (1996) Drought-induced male sterility in rice: changes in carbohydrate levels and enzyme activities associated with the inhibition of starch accumulation in pollen. Sex Plant Report 9:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Singh T, Satapathy Bs, Bhagat K, Das A (2015) Abiotic stress management in rice. Integrated Soil and Water Resources Management for Livelihood and Environmental Security, MeghalayaGoogle Scholar
  57. Shobana S, Malleshi NG, Sudha V, Spiegelman D, Hong B, Hu FB, Willett WC, Krishnaswamy K, Mohan V (2011) Nutritional and sensory profile of two Indian rice varieties with different degrees of polishing. Int J Food Sci Nutr 62(8):800–810PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Smith D, Hornbuckle J (eds) (2013) A review on rice productivity in Cambodia and water use measurement using direct and indirect methods on a dry season rice crop. Technical report to ACIAR. CSIRO Sustainable Agriculture Flagship, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  59. Smith JB, Schellnhuber HJ, Mirza MMQ, Fankhauser S, Leemans R, Erda L, Ogallo L, Pittock B, Richels R, Rosenzweig C, Safriel U (2001) Vulnerability to climate change and reasons for concern: a synthesis. Climate Change, pp. 913–967Google Scholar
  60. Sombilla MA, Rosegrant MW, Meijer SA (2002) A long-term outlook of rice supply and demand balances in Southeast and East Asia. In: Sombilla B, Hossain, Hardy M (eds) Developments in the Asian rice economy. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, pp 291–316Google Scholar
  61. Tabbal DF, Bouman BAM, Bhutyan SI, Sibayan EB, Sattar MA (2002) On-farm strategies for reducing water input in irrigated rice: case studies in the Philippines. Agric Water Manag 56:93–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Verulker SB, Mandal NP, Dwivedi JL, Singh BN, Sinha PK, Mahato RN, Dongre P, Singh ON, Bose LK, Swain P, Robin S, Chandrababu R, Senthil S, Jain A, Shashidhar HE, Hittalmani S, Vera Cruz C, Paris T, Raman A, Haefele S, Serraj R, Atlin G, Kumar A (2010) Breeding resilient and productive genotype adapted to drought-prone rainfed ecosystem of India. Field Crop Res 117:197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wang D, Pan Y, Zhao X, Zhu L, Fu B, Li Z (2011) Genome-wide temporal- spatial gene expression profiling of drought responsiveness in rice. BMC Genom 12:149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Won JG, Choi JS, Lee SP, Son SH, Chung SO (2005) Water saving by shallow intermittent irrigation and growth of rice. Plant Prod Sci 8(4):487–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yousaf M (1992) Study on some physio-chemical characteristics affecting cooking and eating qualities of some Pakistani rice varieties. Msc thesis, Department of Food Technology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  66. Zhang H, Liang W, Yang X, Luo X, Jiang N, Ma H, Zhang D (2010) Carbon starved anther encodes a MYB domain protein that regulates sugar partitioning required for rice pollen development. Plant Cell 22:672–689PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhu L, Shi J, Zhao G, Zhang D, Liang W (2013) Post-meiotic deficient anther 1 (PDA1) encodes an ABC transporter required for the development of anther cuticle and pollen exine in rice. J Plant Biol 56:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. Maalik
    • 1
  • M. Farid
    • 1
  • M. Zubair
    • 2
  • S. Ali
    • 3
  • M. Riwan
    • 3
  • M. Shafqat
    • 1
  • H. K. Ishaq
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of GujratGujratPakistan
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of GujratGujratPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Sciences and EngineeringGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations