Toxicity of Soil Hydrocarbon Pollution in Field Crops and Its Remediation

  • Maimona Saeed
  • Noshin Ilyas


Soil hydrocarbon contamination is an emerging constraint across the globe. The presence of hydrocarbon alters the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil and makes it unfit for plant growth. The intensity of effects varies according to types of contaminants, the extent of contaminants, type of soil, and its properties. Mainly, hydrocarbon in soil decreases the germination of seed, growth, and yield of wheat. As different physical and chemical methods are used to treat polluted soil, such methods are not environmentally friendly and have certain disadvantages. Bioremediation is one of the environmental friendly and cost-effective techniques used for treating the contaminated site. Microorganisms, plants, or both plants and microbes can be used for remediation. The effectiveness of technique depends on the amount and type of contaminants. Microbial degradation is not effective for a large area. Similarly, phytoremediation also has certain limitations. But the combination of both methods has shown a better result. So, there is a need to utilize such a method for remediation purpose and make soil favorable for the growth of crops.


Bioremediation Wheat Phytoremediation 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maimona Saeed
    • 1
  • Noshin Ilyas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyPMAS Arid Agriculture University RawalpindiRawalpindiPakistan

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