Gene Pyramiding: An Emerging Control Strategy Against Insect Pests of Agronomic Crops

  • Muhammad Salim
  • Ayhan Gökçe
  • Muhammad Nadir Naqqash
  • Allah Bakhsh


The present chapter is focused on the evolution of the insect’s resistance against Bt crops and describes the most appropriate approach in order to cope with this serious issue. Different techniques have been used in the past to manage insect evolution against Bt crops. Among them, gene pyramiding, or stacked combinations of different genes in a single crop with their ability to target the same insect pest species, is proven to be a very powerful and effective tool in managing insect resistance problem. The principle goal of gene pyramiding approach is to develop transgenic plants with extra resistance against pests and to enhance crop yield. To obtain transgenic crops with durable and broad-spectrum resistance against insect pests and diseases, the pyramiding of predominant genes (multigene strategy) implying a unique mode of action is a powerful strategy. Gene pyramiding is a useful technique in controlling different insect species as compared to transgenic variety comprising of single toxin trait. Many studies have shown that gene pyramiding is advantageous in controlling different insect species in a single Bt crop, but due to continuous pressure on insect pests, there are chances that the herbivore may evolve resistance. Therefore, reliance only on gene pyramiding strategies is not a complete solution to Bt resistance. It is, therefore, necessary that different combinations of strategies like RNAi with gene pyramiding techniques will be required in the near future that will not only shield our crop against insect pest damages but also reduce reliance on heavy insecticide usage in crops.


Gene pyramiding Yield losses Insect resistance Agronomic crops 



The authors thank Tübitak 2215 for providing fully funded PhD scholarship to Mr. Muhammad Nadir Naqqash and Muhammad Salim.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Salim
    • 1
  • Ayhan Gökçe
    • 1
  • Muhammad Nadir Naqqash
    • 1
  • Allah Bakhsh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant Production and Technologies, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and TechnologiesNiğde Ömer Halisdemir UniversityNiğdeTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural Genetic Engineering, Ayhan Sahenk Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and TechnologiesNiğde Ömer Halisdemir UniversityNiğdeTurkey

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