Pre- and Probiotics: Using Functional Foods in the Fight Against Microbial Resistance to Antibiotics

  • Swati Sharma
  • Ambreen Bano
  • Anmol Gupta
  • Preeti Bajpai
  • Minaxi Lohani
  • Neelam Pathak


Functional foods such as prebiotics, dietary fibers, and probiotic microorganisms have several beneficial effects on the human body. Probiotic microorganisms are reported to produce and enhance the absorption of vitamins and minerals, short-chain fatty acids, amino acids, and organic acids, resulting in the enhancement of the host immune system. Generally, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are used as probiotics. Prebiotics are nonabsorbable polysaccharides/oligosaccharides such as fructooligosaccharides, inulin, and human milk oligosaccharides and have positive effects on host health, maintaining the balance of the gut microbiome, as well as stimulating immunomodulatory activity. Prebiotics are not metabolized by digestive enzymes, allowing them to reach the colon unaltered, where they can be fermented by probiotics. They also promote mineral absorption and act as a fertilizer for gut microflora. These prebiotics can act in synergy with probiotics (synbiotics) and can thus be even more effective if used wisely, selectively stimulating the growth of specific microorganisms. As these synbiotics can directly inhibit the growth and colonization of pathogens and regulate the immune system, they can be developed as an alternative strategy for combating antibiotic resistance in pathogens.


Probiotic Prebiotic Synbiotic Antibiotic resistance Gut microflora 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swati Sharma
    • 1
  • Ambreen Bano
    • 1
  • Anmol Gupta
    • 1
  • Preeti Bajpai
    • 1
  • Minaxi Lohani
    • 2
  • Neelam Pathak
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesIntegral UniversityLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryIntegral UniversityLucknowIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryDr. Rammanohar Lohia Avadh UniversityAyodhyaIndia

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