Health Systems

  • Mbuso Precious Mabuza


The first step towards health systems strengthening is to understand that a health system is a dynamo of interactions and synergies between the building blocks, namely, leadership and governance, health financing, medicines and technologies, health information, health workforce, and service delivery. Effective leadership and governance are the cornerstone and important entry point for discussions of health policy, design, implementation, and for raising performance in healthcare delivery. Human resources for health are a vital building block of a health system, and they are central towards the attainment of better health outcomes. In recent times, disease-focused multi-billion-dollar health initiatives have emerged in the landscape of public health, and governments of many low- and middle-income countries have increased their spending on health. However, in the absence of systematic evidence, there is ongoing debate about the merits of the global aid architecture and aid effectiveness in health. It is argued that technical assistance is often tied to and driven by donors and is not appropriate for the local setting of low- and middle-income countries. Recognising the reality of limited resources and flat-lining of international donor funding, it is important for low- and middle-income countries to be efficient by meeting priority health needs or follow the approach of defining and providing a context-specific minimum service package or essential health package (EHP) of high quality.


Consumers of healthcare services Essential health packages Global aid architecture Governance Healthcare financing Healthcare providers Health systems strengthening Human resources for health International health consultancy Knowledge management Leadership Medical malpractice Monitoring performance National health insurance Health policies Policymakers Public-private partnerships Quality improvement in health Sector-wide approach Technical assistance 


  1. AbouZahr, C., & Boerma, T. (2005). Health information systems: The foundations of public health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83, 578–583.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahuja, R. (2017). National Health Policy 2017: Addressing the “fragmentation” challenge. Health Express, April 07, 2017. Available from Accessed 29 May 2018.
  3. Alexander, J. A., Zuckerman, H. S., & Pointer, D. (1995). The challenges of governing integrated health care systems. Health Care Management Review, 20(4), 69–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Alva, S., Kleinau, E., Pomeroy, A. & Rowan, K. (2009). Measuring the impact of health systems strengthening: A review of the literature. US Agency for International Development.Google Scholar
  5. Baleta, A. (2010). Africa’s struggle to be smoke free. The Lancet, 375(9709), 107–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barr, D. A. (2007). A research protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of public-private partnerships as a means to improve health and welfare systems worldwide. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 19–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bateman, C. (2010). Occupation specific dispensation – A hapless tale. The South African Medical Journal, 100(5), 268–272.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bheekie, A., Adonis, T., & Daniels, P. (2009). Contextualising undergraduate pharmacy training in service-learning at the university of the Western Cape. Education as Change, 11(3), 157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Birn, A., & Richter, J. (2017). U.S. Philanthrocapitalism and the global health agenda: The Rockefeller and Gates Foundations, past and present. New York: Global Policy Forum.Google Scholar
  10. Birn, A., Pillay, Y., & Holtz, T. H. (2009). Textbook of international health: Global health in a dynamic world. Oxford: New York.Google Scholar
  11. Canadian Institute for Health Information. (2018). How Canada compares: Results from the Commonwealth Fund’s 2017 international health policy survey of seniors. Ottawa, ON: CIHI.Google Scholar
  12. Chaix-Coturier, C., Durand-Zaleski, I., Jolly, D., & Durieux, P. (2000). Effects of financial incentives on medical practice: Results from a systematic review of the literature and methodological issues. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 12(2), 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chan, M., Kazatchkine, M., Lob-Levyt, J., Obaid, T., Schweizer, J., Sidibe, M., Veneman, A., & Yamada, T. (2010). Meeting the demand for results and accountability: A call for action on health data from eight global health agencies. PLoS Medicine, 7(1), e1000223.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chopra, M., Lawn, J. E., Sanders, D., Barron, P., Abdool-Karim, S. S., Bradshaw, D., Jewkes, R., Abdool-Karim, Q., Flisher, A., Mayosi, B. M., Tollman, S. M., Churchyard, G. J., & Coovadia, H. (2009). Achieving the health millennium development goals for South Africa: Challenges and priorities. The Lancet, 474(9694), 1023–1031. Retrieved May 11, 2015, from Scholar
  15. Cometto, G., Tulenko, K., Muula, A. S., & Krech, R. (2013). Health workforce brain drain: From denouncing the challenge to solving the problem. PLoS Medicine, 10(9), e1001514.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coovadia, H., Jeukes, R., Baron, P., Sanders, D., & McIntyre, D. (2009). The health and health system of South Africa: Historical roots of current public health challenges. Lancet, 374, 817–834.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Dacombe, R. E., Squire, S. B., Ramsay, A. R. C., Banda, H. T., & Bates, I. (2006). Essential medical laboratory services: Their role in delivering equitable health care in Malawi. Malawi Medical Journal, 18(2), 77–79.Google Scholar
  18. Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2007). Controversies in health care financing: perspectives and debate. Special Session at the 6th Congress of iHEA.Google Scholar
  19. Department for International Development (DFID). (2006). How to note: How to provide technical cooperation personnel, June. Available from Accessed 15 Jan 2016.
  20. Derua, Y., Ishengoma, D. R. S., Rwegoshora, R. T., Tenu, F., Massaga, J. J., Mboera, L. E. G., & Magesa, S. M. (2011). Users’ and health service providers’ perception on quality of laboratory malaria diagnosis in Tanzania. Malaria Journal, 10, 78.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ditlopo, P., Blaauw, D., Bidwell, P., & Thomas, S. (2011). Analysing the implementation of the rural allowance in hospitals in North West Province, South Africa. Public Health Policy, 32(Suppl).Google Scholar
  22. Ditlopo, P., Blaauw, D., Rispel, L. C., Thomas, S., & Bidwell, P. (2013). Policy implementation and financial incentives for nurses in South Africa: A case study on the occupation-specific dispensation. Global Health Action, 6(10), 19289.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Domenico, F. D. (2007). Staff your most valuable asset. The American Chiropractor, 4 March.Google Scholar
  24. Drummond, M. F., Schwartz, J. S., Johnsson, B., Luce, B. R., Neumann, P. J., Siebert, U., & Sullivan, S. D. (2008). Key principles for the improved conduct of health technology assessments for resource allocation decisions. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 24(3), 244–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dwyer, J. & Wilhelmsen, S. (n.d.). Leadership and management. Retrieved May 10, 2016, from
  26. Easterly, W. & Frechi, L. (2010). The World Bank’s “horizontal” approach to health falls horizontal. Available from
  27. Eghan, K. (2018). Strong pharmaceutical systems are crucial to attaining UHC. Health systems strengthening, May 24, 2018. Available from Accessed 28 May 2018.
  28. Ensor, T., Dave-Sen, P., Ali, L., Hossain, A., Begum, S. A., & Moral, H. (2002). Do essential service packages benefit the poor? Preliminary evidence from Bangladesh. Health Policy and Planning, 17(3), 247–256.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Evans, T. G. (2018). Canada and global health: Accelerate leadership now. Lancet, 391, 1648–1649.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Fakir, S. (2011). Lessons for South Africa from England’s messy public-private partnerships, The South African Civil Society Information Service, 10 February.Google Scholar
  31. Feiring, B. (2003). Indigenous peoples and poverty: The cases of Bolivia, Guatemala. Minority Rights Group International: Honduras and Nicaragua.Google Scholar
  32. Forster, A. J., Turnbull, J., McGuire, S., Ho, M. L., & Worthington, J. R. (2011). Improving patient safety and physician accountability using the hospital credentialing process. Open Medicine, 5(2).Google Scholar
  33. Frenk, J. (2006). Bridging the divide: Global lessons from evidence-based health policy in Mexico. Lancet, 368, 954–961.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Frenk, J., Chen, L., Bhutta, Z. A., Cohen, J., Crisp, N., Evans, T., Fineberg, H., Garcia, P., Ke, Y., Kelley, P., Kistnasamy, B., Meleis, A., Naylor, D., Pablos-Mendez, A., Reddy, S., Scrimshaw, S., Sepulveda, J., Serwadda, D., & Zurayk, H. (2010). Health professionals for a new century: Transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. The Lancet, 376, 1923–1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fried, L. P., Piot, P., Frenk, J. J., Flahault, A., & Parker, R. (2012). Global public health leadership for the twenty-first century: Towards improved health of all populations. Global Public Health, 7(S1), S5–S15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Fryatt, R., Mills, A., & Nordstrom, A. (2010). Financing of health systems to achieve the health millennium development goals in low-income countries. The Lancet, 375(9712), 419–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. George, G., Atajuna, M., & Gow, J. (2013). Migration of south African health workers: The extent to which financial considerations influence internal flows and external movements. BMC Health Services Research, 13, 297.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gerston, L. N. (2004). Public policy making: Process and principles. New York: ME Sharpe.Google Scholar
  39. Gilson, L., & Agyepong, I. A. (2018). Strengthening health system leadership for better governance: What does it take? Health Policy and Planning, 33(Suppl_2), ii1–ii4. Scholar
  40. Glassman, A. & Silverman, R. (2016). Restructuring US global health programs to respond to new challenges and missed opportunities. The white house and the world. Available from Accessed 28 May 2018.
  41. Global Health Workforce Alliance (GHWA). (2008). Guidelines: incentives for health professionals [Online]. Geneva: Global Health Workforce Alliance.Google Scholar
  42. Go Molecular. (n.d.). Sample transport in Uganda: a network for efficiency. Available from
  43. Goldman, M. (2005). Imperial nature: The World Bank and struggles for social justice in the age of globalisation. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Gostin, L., & Friedman, E. A. (2014). Ebola: A crisis in global health leadership. The Lancet, 384, 1323–1325. Retrieved May 10, 2015 from Scholar
  45. Gray, A. & van der Merwe, L. (2009). Occupation-specific dispensation – An exercise in bad faith negotiations or promise for the future, South African Pharmaceutical Journal, November/December, 52–56.Google Scholar
  46. Green, A. (2013). Public private partnerships may answer doctor shortage, Mail & Guardian, 19 August.Google Scholar
  47. Greene, J. A. (2010). When did medicines become essential? Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88(7), 483.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grindle, M. S. (2004). Good governance: Poverty reduction and reform in developing countries. Governance, 17(4), 525–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grol, R. (2001). Improving the quality of medical care. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 28(20), 2578–2585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Haines, A., Kuruvilla, S., & Borchert, M. (2004). Bridging the implementation gap between knowledge and action for health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82, 724–732.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Ham, L. (2001). Consulting on health policy in Canada. Citizens as partners: Information, consultation and public participation in policy-making. OECD.Google Scholar
  52. Heading, G. (2009). Strategic leadership, culture and change in health services. Alexandria: Cancer Institute NSW.Google Scholar
  53. Health Policy Project. (2015). Health insurance feasibility study in Afghanistan: Phase one summary findings. Washington, DC: Futures Group, Health Policy Project.Google Scholar
  54. Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation. (2018). Kaiser daily Global Health policy report, May 21, 2018. Available from Accessed 28 May 2018.
  55. Hickson, G. B., Federspiel, C. F., Pichert, J. W., Miller, C. S., Gauld-Jaeger, J., & Bost, P. (2002). Patients complaints and malpractice risk. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(22), 2951–2957.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Hodzic, S. I. (2017). Healthcare systems, patients’ rights and patient Organisations’ involvement in healthcare policy and Programme development: A situational analysis of the Western Balkans. European Patients Forum.Google Scholar
  57. Horton, R. (2010). A new epoch for health professionals’ education. The Lancet, 376, 1875–1877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Huang, M. & Peiqiang, R. (2012). China’s foreign aid and its role in the international aid architecture. Emerging economies and global policies, pp. 75–78.Google Scholar
  59. Hunter, J. (2007). Managing for health. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Indo-Asian News Service. (2012). US monopoly on World Bank presidency challenged. Available from
  61. IntraHealth International. (2010). New health care system planned for Swaziland. Available from Accessed 19 Apr 2014.
  62. Johnson, J. A., & Stoskopf, C. (2010). Comparative health systems: Global perspectives. New York: Jones & Bartlett. Retrieved April 11, 2015, from Scholar
  63. Jolly, R., & Stewart, F. (1987). Adjustment with a human face: Protecting the vulnerable and promoting growth. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Jones, P. (2006). Doctors as patients. Twickenham: Radcliffe Publishing.Google Scholar
  65. Jooste, K. (2009). Leadership in health services management. Lansdowne: Juta.Google Scholar
  66. Kates, J., Fischer, J. & Lief, E. (2009). The U.S. government’s global health policy architecture: Structure, programs, and funding. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. U.S. Global health Policy. Available from Accessed 28 May 2018.
  67. Kay, M., Mitchell, G., Clavarino, A., & Doust, J. (2008). Doctors as patients: A systematic review of doctors’ health access and the barriers they experience. The British Journal of General Practice, 58(552), 501–508.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kelley, E. T., Arispe, I. & Holmes, J. (2006). Beyond the initial indicators: Lessons from the OECD health care quality indicators project and the US national healthcare quality report. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 45–51. Retrieved April 11, 2015, from
  69. Khazan, O. (2017). What’s actually wrong with the U.S. health system. The Atlantic. Available from Accessed 28 May 2018.
  70. Kingue, S., Rosskam, E., Bela, A. C., Adjidja, A., & Codjia, L. (2013). Strengthening human resources for health through multisectoral approaches and leadership: The case of Cameroon. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 91, 864–867.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kiyaga, C., Sendagire, H., Joseph, E., MConnll, I., Grosz, J., Narayan, V., Esiru, G., Elyanu, P., Akol, Z., Kirungi, W., Musingizi, & Opio, A. (2013). Uganda’s new national laboratory sample transport system: A successful model for improving access to diagnostic services for early infant HIV diagnosis and other programs. PLoS One, 8(11), e78609.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kober, K., & van Damme, W. (2006). Public sector nurses in Swaziland: Can the downturn be reversed? Human Resources for Health, 4, 13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kumar, A., & Ozdamar, L. (2004). International comparison of health care systems. International Journal of the Computer, The Internet and Management, 12(3), 81–95.Google Scholar
  74. Kumar, S., Kumar, N., & Vivekadhish, S. (2016). Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Addressing unfinished agenda and strengthening sustainable development and partnership. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 41(1), 1–4. Available from Accessed 29 May 2018.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Land, T., Hauck, V. & Baser, H. (2007). Aid effectiveness and the provision of TA personnel: Improving practice, Policy Management Brief, 20, November.Google Scholar
  76. Lele, U., Sadik, N., & Simmons, A. (2012). Changing Aid Architecture: can global initiatives eradicate poverty? [Online].Google Scholar
  77. Lewis, M., & Pettersson, G. (2005). Governance in health care delivery: Raising performance. World Health Workforce Alliance, Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  78. Lewis, M. & Pettersson, G. (2009). Governance in health care delivery: Raising performance, Policy Research Working Paper, 5074. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  79. Lopez, A., Mathers, C., Ezzati, M., Jamison, D. T., & Murray, C. J. L. (2006). Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: Systematic analysis of population health data. The Lancet, 367(9524), 1747–1757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mabuza, M. P. (2018a). Health and society: Critical and contemporary perspectives. Beau Bassin: Lambert Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  81. Mabuza, M. P. (2018b). Management of health systems: Critical perspectives. Beau Bassin: Lambert Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  82. Mabuza, M. (2018c). Impact of an onsite occupational health clinic on organisational performance and employee wellbeing at a southern African maritime port. Eurasian Journal of Medicine and Oncology, 2(3), 152–164. Scholar
  83. Mabuza, M. P., & Shumba, C. (2018). A qualitative exploration of doctors and nurses’ experiences on the management of TB and HIV coinfection in a TB-HIV high burden community in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 9, 770. Scholar
  84. Magnussen, L., Ehiri, J., & Jolly, P. (2004). Comprehensive versus selective primary health care: Lessons for global health policy. Health Affairs, 23(3), 167–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Magowe, M. K., Lediwe, J. H., Kasvosve, I., Martin, R., Thankane, K., & Semo, B. (2014). An innovative educational approach to professional development of medical laboratory scientists in Botswana. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 4(5), 73–81.Google Scholar
  86. Malherbe, J. (2013). Counting the costs: The consequences of increased medical malpractice litigation in South Africa. The South African Medical Journal, 13(2), 83–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Manheimer, E. D. (2011). When doctors become patients, The New York Times, 2 September [Online]. Available from
  88. Mate, K. S., Bennett, B., Mphatswe, W., Parker, P., & Rollins, N. (2009). Challenges for routine health system data management in a large public programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission in South Africa. PLoS One, 4(5), e5483.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McGuire, J.W. (2013). Conditional cash transfers in Bolivia: origins, impact, and universality. Annual meeting of the international studies association, San Francisco, April 3-6.Google Scholar
  90. McIntyre, D. (2007). Learning from experience: Health care financing in low- and middle-income countries. Geneva: Global Forum for Health Research.Google Scholar
  91. Merson, M. H., Black, R. E., & Mills, A. J. (2012). Global health: Diseases, programs, systems, and policies. London: Jones & Bartlett.Google Scholar
  92. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. (2013). Denmark-Bolivia Country Policy Paper 2013–2018. Copenhagen.
  93. Mishra, P. & Agarwal, A. (2017). Public health in India: gaps in intent, policy, and practice. Available from Accessed 28 May 2018.
  94. Mitton, C., Adair, C. E., McKenzie, E., Patten, S. B., & Perry, B. W. (2007). Knowledge transfer and exchange: Review and synthesis of the literature. The Milbank Quarterly, 85(4), 729–768.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Montegut, A. J. (2007). To achieve “health for all” we must shift the world’s paradigm to “primary care access for all”. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 20, 514517.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Mossman, K., McGahan, A., Mitchell, W. & Bhattacharyya, O. (2014). Evaluating high-tech health approaches in low-income countries, Stanford Social Innovation Review, 11 February.Google Scholar
  97. Mueller, D. H., Lungu, D., Acharya, A. & Palmer, N. (2011). Constraints to implementing the essential health package in Malawi, Public Library of Sciences, e20741.Google Scholar
  98. Mullan, F., Frehywat, S., Omaswa, F., Buch, E., Chen, C., Greysen, S. R., Wassermann, T., Abubakr, D. E. E., Awases, M., Boelen, C., Isidore, M. J., Dovlo, D., Ferro, J., Hailleamlak, A., Iputo, J., Jacobs, M., Koumare, A. K., Mipando, M., Monekosso, G. L., Olapade-Olaopa, E. O., Rugarabamu, P., Sewankambo, N. K., Ross, H., Ayas, H., Chale, S. B., Cyprien, S., Cohen, J., Haile-Mariam, T., Hamburger, E., Jolley, L., Kalars, J. C., & Neusy, A. (2011). Medical schools in sub-Saharan Africa. The Lancet, 377, 1113–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Muller, M., Bezuidenhout, M., & Jooste, K. (2006). Healthcare service management. Cape Town: Juta.Google Scholar
  100. Murray, C. J., Lopez, A. D., & Wibulplprasert, S. (2004). Monitoring global health: Time for solutions. The British Medical Journal, 329, 1096–1000.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Myers, J. (2016). Foreign aid: These countries are the most generous. World Economic Forum. Available from Accessed 22 Nov 2018.
  102. Ndihokubwayo, J. B., Kasolo, F., Yahaya, A. M. & Mwenda, J. (2010). Strengthening public health laboratories in the WHO Africa region: A critical need for disease control, The African Health Monitor, (12), April-June.Google Scholar
  103. Nduru, M. (2006). World health day: Medical brain drain puts southern Africa in a quandary, Inter Press Service, 7 April.Google Scholar
  104. Nishtar, S. (2004). Public-private ‘partnerships’ in health – A global call to action. Health Research Policy and Systems, 2, 5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Nishtar, S., Niinisto, S., Vazquez, T., et al. (2018). Time to deliver: Report of the WHO independent high-level commission on NCDs. Lancet, 6736(18), 31258–31253.Google Scholar
  106. Opio, A., Wafula, W., Amone, J., Kajumbula, H., & Nkengasong, J. N. (2010). Country leadership and policy are critical factors for implementing laboratory accreditation in developing countries. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 134, 381–387.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Osborn, R. (2017). 2017 Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy Survey of Older Adults in 11 Countries. The Commonwealth Fund.Google Scholar
  108. Oxfam International and WaterAid. (2006). In the public interest: health, education, and water and sanitation for all [Online]. Available from
  109. Palitza, K. (2014). South Africa: Lack of quality health care causes rises in orphans, Inter Press Service, 20 April.Google Scholar
  110. Peltzer, K. (2009). Traditional health practitioners in South Africa. The Lancet, 374(9694), 956–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pepper, M. S., & Slabbert, M. N. (2011). Is South Africa on the verge of a medical malpractice storm? The South African Journal of Bioethics & Law, 4(1), 29–35.Google Scholar
  112. Porter, M. E., & Lee, T. H. (2013). The strategy that will fix health care. October: Harvard Business Review.Google Scholar
  113. Pruitt, S. D., & Epping-Jordan, J. (2005). Preparing the 21st century global healthcare workforce. The Lancet, 330, 637–639.Google Scholar
  114. Pulia, M. (2011). Simple tips to improve patient satisfaction. American Academy of Emergency Medicine, 18(1), 18–19.Google Scholar
  115. Quick, J. D. (2011). Strong leadership, management, and governance practices improve health impact. Available from Accessed 28 May 2018.
  116. Rowe, K., & Moodley, K. (2013). Debate: Patients as consumers of health care in South Africa: The ethical and legal implications. BMC Medical Ethics, 14, 15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ruff, B., Mzimba, M., Hendrie, S., & Broomberg, J. (2011). Reflections on health-care reforms in South Africa. Journal of Public Health Policy, 32, s184–s192.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Sahoo, M.K. (2018). India’s new National Health Protection Scheme: How feasible is it? The Critical Mirror, March 23, 2018. Available from Accessed 29 May 2018.
  119. Savedoff, W. D. (2011). Governance in the health sector: A strategy for measuring determinants and performance, Policy Research Working Paper, 5655. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  120. Schwartlander, B., Stover, J., Hallett, T., Atum, R., Avila, C., Gouws, E., Bartos, M., Ghys, P. D., Opuni, M., Barr, D., Alsallaq, R., Bollinger, L., de Ftreitas, M., Garnett, G., Holmes, C., Legins, K., Pillay, Y., Stanciole, A. E., McClure, C., Hirnschall, G., Laga, M., & Padian, N. (2011). Towards an improved investment approach for an effective response to HIV/AIDS. The Lancet, 377(9782), 2031–2041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Seims, L. R., Alegre, J. C., Murei, L., Bragar, J., Thatte, N., Kibunga, P., & Cheburet, S. (2012). Strengthening management and leadership practices to increase health-service delivery in Kenya: An evidence-based approach. Human Resources for Health, 10(25). Retrieved May 10, 2015 from
  122. Senkubuge, F., Modisenyane, M., & Bishaw, T. (2014). Strengthening health systems by health sector reforms. Global Health Action, 7, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Serrate, P. C., Lausanne, R. C., Jean-Calude, M. M., Espinosa, C. S. & Gonzalez, T. C. (2007). Study on intersector practices in health in Cuba: report to the Pan American Health Organization. National School of public health. Escuela Nacional de Salud Publica de la Republica de Cuba (ENCAMP). Havana.Google Scholar
  124. Smith, P. C., & Papanicolas, I. (2012). Health system performance comparison: An agenda for policy, information and research. Copenhagen: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  125. Spackman, M. (2002). Public-private partnerships: Lessons from the British approach. Economic Systems, 26, 283–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sullivan, T. M., Limaye, R. J., Mitchell, V., D’Adamo, M., & Baquef, Z. (2015). Levaraging the power of knowledge management to transform global health and development. Global Health: Science and Practice, 3(2), 150–162.Google Scholar
  127. Suy, R., Yen, Y., Chatterjee, R., et al. (2017). Cambodian health policy: Challenge and development. International Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Science, 2(2), 23–32.Google Scholar
  128. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (CDC). (2016). Swiss cooperation strategy Kosovo 2017–2020. Directorate of Political Affairs: Bern.Google Scholar
  129. Taylor, D. W. (2000). Facts, myths and monsters: Understanding the principles of good governance. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 13(2), 108–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Taylor, A. L., Hwenda, L., Larsen, B. I., & Daulaire, N. (2011). Stemming the brain drain – A WHO global code of practice on international recruitment of health personnel. New England Journal of Medicine, 365, 2348–2351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Teare, R. E. (1998). Interpreting and responding to customer needs. Journal of Workplace Learning, 10(2), 76–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. The University of Sidney. (2012). The challenges of preparing the health workforce of the future, News, 15 August.Google Scholar
  133. Tumusiime, P., Gonani, A., Walker, O., Asbu, E. Z., Awases, M. & Kariyo, P. C. (n.d.). Health systems in sub-Saharan Africa: What is their status and role in meeting the health millennium development goals? Health Systems and Reproductive Health, Special Issue 14.Google Scholar
  134. Tyson, S., & McNeil, M. (2009). How to… provide effective technical assistance. BJOG, 116(s1), 93–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. USAID. (2012). The intersection of knowledge management and health systems strengthening: implications from the Malawi Knowledge for Health Demonstration Project [online].Google Scholar
  136. Van de Pas, R. (2017). Global health in the Anthropocene: Moving beyond resilience and capitalism. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 6(8), 481–486.Google Scholar
  137. Victora, C. G., Hanson, K., Bryce, J., & Vaughan, J. P. (2004). Achieving universal coverage with health interventions. Lancet, 364, 1541–1548.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Waddington, C., Hadi, Y., Pearson, M., Alebachew, A., Eldon, J., James, J., Khan, M. S., & Varghese, B. (2009). Global aid architecture and the health millennium development goals. Oslo: Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation.Google Scholar
  139. Walley, J., & Wright, J. (2010). Public health: An action guide to improving health. Oxford: New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Waytz, A. (2009). The psychology of social status, Scientific American, 8 December.Google Scholar
  141. Widdus, R. (2001). Public-private partnerships for health: Their main targets, their diversity, and their future directions. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 79, 713–720.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Woltring, C., Constantine, W., & Schwarte, L. (2003). Does leadership training make a difference? The CDC/UC public health leadership institute. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 9(2), 103–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. World Bank. (2014a). Health overview. Available from
  144. World Bank. (2014c). Speech by World Bank Group president Jim Yong Kim on universal health coverage in emerging economies. Available from
  145. World Health Organization (WHO). (2000). Health systems: Improving performance. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  146. World Health Organization (WHO). (2006a). Bridging the “know-do” gap meeting on knowledge translation in global health.Google Scholar
  147. World Health Organization (WHO). (2006b). World health report 2006: Working together for health. Geneva: World Health Organization.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. World Health Organization (WHO). (2007a). Building leadership and management capacity in health. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  149. World Health Organization (WHO). (2007b). Everybody’s business: Strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: WHO’s framework for action. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  150. World Health Organization (WHO). (2007c). Towards better leadership and management in health: Report on an international consultation on strengthening leadership and management in low-income countries. Making Health Systems Work: Working Paper No. 10. Retrieved May 10, 2015, from
  151. World Health Organization (WHO). (2008). Essential health packages: What are they for? What do they change?, WHO Service Delivery Seminar Series, DRAFT Technical Brief No. 2, July.Google Scholar
  152. World Health Professions Alliance (WHPA). (2007). A core competency framework for international health consultants. Geneva: World Health Professions Alliance.Google Scholar
  153. Zakus, D. (2013). Global health rounds. Global Health Weekly, 2(37), 1–7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mbuso Precious Mabuza
    • 1
  1. 1.Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations