Digital Audio Watermarking by Amplitude Embedding System

  • Meng-Ju Lin
  • Ming Zhao
  • Shuo-Tsung Chen
  • Ching-Ju ChenEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 156)


This paper proposed an amplitude embedding system for digital audio watermarking in the wavelet domain. In this paper, the relationship between the watermarked coefficients and the original coefficients is first presented and then amplitude-based embedding rules are combined into an amplitude-based embedding system that incorporates a system state. For the embedding in this system, the information includes synchronization codes and the watermarks are embedded into the DWT lowest frequency sub-band coefficients which can be described by a matrix form. Moreover, the SNR is rewritten as a performance index which is a quadratic form. Then, a nonlinear function connecting the performance index and the embedding system is derived. Accordingly, an optimization-based embedding system is proposed. Finally, the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) Theorem is used to obtain the optimal solution, which is an important formula for watermarking. In addition, the hidden information can be extracted without knowledge of the original audio. In the experiments, the performance of the proposed system is tested and the results verify the high SNR and strong robustness against multimedia signal processing or malicious attacks.


Amplitude Embedding system Audio watermarking Wavelet SNR Optimal 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meng-Ju Lin
    • 1
  • Ming Zhao
    • 2
  • Shuo-Tsung Chen
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ching-Ju Chen
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Applied MathematicsTunghai UniversityTaichung, TaiwanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Computer ScienceYangtze UniversityJingzhou CityChina
  3. 3.College of Future, Bachelor Program in Interdisciplinary StudiesNational Yunlin University of Science and TechnologyTaiwanPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Intelligence Recognition Industry Service Research Center (IR-IS Research Center)National Yunlin University of Science and TechnologyTaiwanPeople’s Republic of China

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