Data-Driven Modelling and Optimal Control of Domestic Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response
- 240 Downloads
Electric water heater (EWH) is widely used to provide reliable and long-lasting domestic hot water to occupants in residential buildings. EWH has been widely recognized as an important source of building energy flexibility, which could benefit both the building occupants and the power system operators through various demand response (DR) programs. DR programs applied to EWHs are investigated in this paper. Optimal control strategies are developed to operate a portfolio of EWHs in order to reduce energy costs. A control-based model of EWH is developed using the data from field experiments and a statistical grey-box modelling approach (here using the CSTM-R package). The results show that the aggregated EWHs can optimize their heating schedule in order to reduce the overall cost without compromising the comfort of occupants.
KeywordsAggregation Electric water heater Experiment Flexibility Optimization
The research is conducted in the PowerFlexHouse2 at Risø Campus of Technical University of Denmark, with support of PROAIN and EnergLab Nordhavn project.
- 1.Olejarnik, P.: World energy outlook 2013. Int. Energy Agency Fr. (2013)Google Scholar
- 3.Shaad, M., Momeni, A., Diduch, C.P., Kaye, M., Chang, L.: Parameter identification of thermal models for domestic electric water heaters in a direct load control program. In: 2012 25th IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical & Computer Engineering (CCECE), pp. 1–5 (2012)Google Scholar
- 4.Shad, M., Momeni, A., Errouissi, R., Diduch, C.P., Kaye, M.E., Chang, L.: Identification and estimation for electric water heaters in direct load control programs. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 8(2), 947–955 (2017)Google Scholar
- 5.Kondoh, J., Lu, N., Hammerstrom, D.J.: An evaluation of the water heater load potential for providing regulation service. In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011 IEEE, pp. 1–8 (2011)Google Scholar
- 6.Pfeiffer, M.: Load control strategies for electric water heaters with thermal stratification. Semester Thesis. Swiss Fed. Inst. Technol. Zurich, vol. 52 (2011)Google Scholar
- 7.You, S., Træholt, C., Poulsen, B.: A market-based virtual power plant. In: 2009 International Conference on Clean Electrical Power, pp. 460–465 (2009)Google Scholar
- 11.Yu, X.: Situation-aware control of electrical storage heaters. Technical University of Denmark (2017)Google Scholar