Evaluation of Factors Toward Flow Distribution in the Dividing Manifold Systems with Parallel Pipe Arrays Using the Orthogonal Experiment Design

  • Wanqing Zhang
  • Angui LiEmail author
  • Feifei Cao
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Dividing manifold systems have a wide range of applications in the fields of energy transfer and conservation. A uniform flow distribution plays an essential role in industrial processes to improve the efficiency and durability of industrial facilities and equipment. The orthogonal experiment design (OED) was adopted in this study to evaluate the factors that affect flow performance of the dividing manifold systems with parallel pipe arrays (DMS–PPA) under the range of five structural and flow parameters (area ratio (AR), pipe pitch (Δl), height of convex head (hhead), roughness factor (K), and inlet Reynolds number (Rein)). The non-uniformity coefficient (Ф) and total pressure drop (ΔPj) were put forward to evaluate flow distribution. The L25(56) orthogonal array was selected for the experiment, and the analysis of range (ANORA) and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are performed. The most significant parameter is identified as AR and Rein, respectively, considering the influence degree on the Ф and ΔPj. The effect of AR should be further studied for the structural optimization design of the dividing manifold system.


Flow distribution Dividing manifold system Orthogonal experiment design 



The project is supported by the Shaanxi Science and Technology Co-ordination and Innovation Project (No.2016KTCL01-13).


  1. 1.
    Bajura, R.A., Jones, E.H.: Flow distribution manifolds. ASME Trans. J. Fluids Eng. 98(4), 654–665 (1976)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dong, J., et al.: CFD analysis of a novel modular manifold with multistage channels for uniform air distribution in a fuel cell stack. Appl. Therm. Eng. 124, 286–293 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yang, H., et al.: Effect of the rectangular exit-port geometry of a distribution manifold on the flow performance. Appl. Therm. Eng. 117, 481–486 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee, S., et al.: A study on the exit flow characteristics determined by the orifice configuration of multi-perforated tubes. J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 26(9), 2751–2758 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu, H.H., et al.: Modeling and design of air-side manifolds and measurement on an industrial 5-kW hydrogen fuel cell stack. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 42(30), 19216–19226 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huang, C.H., et al.: A manifold design problem for a plate-fin microdevice to maximize the flow uniformity of system. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 95, 22–34 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Said, S.A.M., et al.: Reducing the flow mal-distribution in a heat exchanger. Comput. Fluids 107, 1–10 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang, X., Yu, P.: Isothermal flow distribution in header systems. Int. J. Solar Energy 7(3), 159–169 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang, W., et al.: Effects of geometric structures on flow uniformity and pressure drop in dividing manifold systems with parallel pipe arrays. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 127, 870–881 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang, W., Li, A.: Resistance reduction via guide vane in dividing manifold systems with parallel pipe arrays (DMS–PPA) based on analysis of energy dissipation. Build. Environ. 139, 189–198 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Winer, B.J.: Statistical Principles in Experimental Design. McGraw-Hill, New York (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Building Services Science and EngineeringXi’an University of Architecture and TechnologyXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations