Curve Analysis of Airborne BTEX Concentration in Vehicles

  • Daocong Qin
  • Jie Hu
  • Bing Guo
  • Xiaokai ChenEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) lead to cabin air pollution, which is harmful to passengers and drivers. In order to decrease the harm, the BTEX attenuation with time is analyzed by monitoring the BTEX concentrations in 38 vehicles with Air Sampler and Gas Chromatograph and by the curve estimation regression with the SPSS statistical software. Results show that the optimum attenuation curve between the BTEX pollution (y) and time (x) is a cubic equation with one variable, in which \(y_{\text{benzene}} = {-}0.004x^{3} + 0.228x^{2} {-}5.787x + 130.803\), \(y_{\text{toluene}} = {-}0.007x^{3} + 0.451x^{2} {-}12.510x + 326.425\), \(y_{\text{ethyl benzene}} = {-}0.003x^{3} + 0.212x^{2} {-}5.345x + 118.780\) and \(y_{\text{xylenes}} = {-}0.008x^{3} + 0.505x^{2} {-}12.777x + 289.001\). When the BTEX pollution is zero, the attenuation time is 3.4–4.2 years. The BTEX diffusion from in-vehicle materials can last for several years so that the BTEX attenuation and control is a long-term process.


IAQ Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene xylenes Vehicle cabins 



The project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Number 51568026).


  1. 1.
    Xu, B., Chen, X., Xiong, J.: Air quality inside motor vehicles’ cabins: a review. Indoor Built Environ. 27(4), 452–465 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Perez, A.L., Liong, M., Plotkin, K., Rickabaugh, K.P., Paustenbach, D.J.: Health risk assessment of exposures to a high molecular weight plasticizer present in automobile interiors. Chemosphere 167, 541–550 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yang, T., Zhang, P., Xu, B., Xiong, J.: Predicting VOC emissions from materials in vehicle cabins: determination of the key parameters and the influence of environmental factors. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 110, 671–679 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim, K.H., Szulejko, J.E., Jo, H.J., Lee, M.H., Kim, Y.H., Kwon, E., et al.: Measurements of major VOCs released into the closed cabin environment of different automobiles under various engine and ventilation scenarios. Environ. Pollut. 215, 340–346 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gong, Y., Wei, Y., Cheng, J., Jiang, T., Chen, L., Xu, B.: Health risk assessment and personal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in metro carriages—a case study in Shanghai, China. Sci. Total Environ. 574, 1432–1438 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lu, Y.Y., Lin, Y., Zhang, H., Ding, D., Sun, X., Huang, Q., Lin, L., Chen, Y.J., Chi, Y.L., Dong, S.: Evaluation of volatile organic compounds and carbonyl compounds present in the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13(6), e596 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen, X., Feng, L., Luo, H., Cheng, H.: Analyses on influencing factors of airborne VOCs pollution in taxi cabins. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21(22), 12868–12882 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brodzik, K., Faber, J., Lomankiewicz, D., Gołda-Kopek, A.: In-vehicle VOCs composition of unconditioned, newly produced cars. J. Environ. Sci. 26(5), 1052–1061 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen, X., Feng, L., Luo, H., Cheng, H.: Health risk equations and risk assessment of airborne benzene homologues exposure to drivers and passengers in taxi cabins. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 23(5), 4797–4811 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xu, B., Wu, Y., Gong, Y., Wu, S., Wu. X., Zhu, S., Liu, T.: Investigation of volatile organic compounds exposure inside vehicle cabins in China. Atmos. Pollut. Res. 7(2), 215–220 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen, X., Zhang, G., Zhang, Q., Chen, H.: Mass concentrations of BTEX inside air environment of buses in Changsha, China. Build. Environ. 46(2), 421–427 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li, S., Chen, S., Zhu, L., Chen, X., Yao, C., Shen, X.: Concentrations and risk assessment of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons in buses and bus stations of Hangzhou, China. Sci. Total Environ. 407, 2004–2011 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xiong, J.Y., Yang, T., Tan, J.W., Li, L., Ge, Y.S.: Characterization of VOC emission from materials in vehicular environment at varied temperatures: correlation development and validation. PLoS One 10, e0140081 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Building Environment & Energy ApplyingCollege of Civil Engineering, Kunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations