Chinese cooking methods can produce a large amount of hazardous cooking oil fume, which may include masses of organic carbon. This study collected PM2.5 samples of cooking emissions from five most common Chinese cooking methods (stir-, pan-, deep-frying, steaming, and boiling). Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 were analyzed using the thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) method. Average second organic carbon (SOC) from different cooking methods was estimated via the method of minimum OC/EC ratio. The estimated SOC concentrations from stir-frying, pan-frying, deep-frying, boiling, and steaming were 709.2 + 220.4, 262.1 + 60.6, 119.9 + 18.6 μg/m3, 17.6 μg/m3, 5.0 μg/m3, respectively. The results of cooking-related SOC/OC ratios (81.1% + 2.8%, 85.0% + 1.1%, 79.7% + 4.7%, 40.0%, and 23.0% for stir-, pan-, and deep-frying, boiling, and steaming, respectively) can be used in source apportionment and also be helpful in developing control strategies of particulate carbon pollution.
OC&EC Second organic aerosol (SOA) Cooking emission Source apportionment Indoor air quality
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This work was financially supported by the National Key Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology, China on “Green Buildings and Building Industrialization” (grant number 2016YFC0700500); and the Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 51521005). We would also like to thank our committee members, sponsors, reviewers, authors, and other participants for support to ISHVAC 2019.
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