Influence of Warm Exposure on Thermal Perceptions and Control Behaviors Over Indoor Environments

  • Jiamin Lu
  • Nianping LiEmail author
  • Yingdong He
  • Yangli Han
  • Xuemiao Fang
  • Linxuan Zhou
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Current lab studies focus on forming a fixed environment for subjects and studying their thermal perceptions. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate occupants’ thermal perceptions and control behaviors over indoor environments. The obtained results showed that a too long or too short exposure urged subjects to more lower their ambient temperatures. With the warm exposure of 0 min without fans, i.e. subjects immediately lowered the indoor temperature when entering the experimental room, they had the largest desire to decrease indoor temperatures. Whether with or without fans, after being exposed to 30 °C for 10 min, subjects had the minimum requirements for lowering indoor temperatures. With the access to adjusting indoor temperatures, more than 90% of subjects changed indoor temperatures until they felt thermally neutral. And with fans, subjects finally chose higher temperatures. This study provides references for researches on occupants’ control behaviors and transient thermal comfort in real buildings.


Warm exposure Control behaviors Thermal comfort 



This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No. 51878255).

Informed consent was obtained from each occupant before the experiments. Data anonymization was ensured and all personal information has been protected when experimental data was analyzed.


  1. 1.
    Yu, J., Ouyang, Q., Zhu, Y., et al.: A comparison of the thermal adaptability of people accustomed to air-conditioned environments and naturally ventilated environments. Indoor Air 22(2), 110–118 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lee, J.Y., Saat, M., Chou, C., et al.: cutaneous warm and cool sensation thresholds and the inter-threshold zone in Malaysian and Japanese males. J. Therm. Biol. 35(2), 70–76 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brager, G.S., de Dear, R.J.: Thermal adaptation in the built environment: a literature review. Energy Build. 27(1), 83–96 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nicol, J.F., Humphreys, M.A.: Thermal comfort as part of a self-regulating system. Build. Res. Practice 1(3), 174–179 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chun, C., Kwok, A., Mitamura, T., et al.: Thermal diary: connecting temperature history to indoor comfort. Build. Environ. 43(5), 877–885 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    He, Y.D., Li, N.P., Li, N., et al.: Control behaviors and thermal comfort in a shared room with desk fans and adjustable thermostat. Build. Environ. 136, 213–226 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xiong, J., Zhou, X., Lian, Z.W., et al.: Thermal perception and skin temperature in different transient thermal environments in summer. Energy Build. 128, 155–163 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ji, W.J., Cao, B., Geng, Y., et al.: Study on human skin temperature and thermal evaluation in step change conditions: from non-neutrality to neutrality. Energy Build. 156, 29–39 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiamin Lu
    • 1
  • Nianping Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yingdong He
    • 1
  • Yangli Han
    • 1
  • Xuemiao Fang
    • 1
  • Linxuan Zhou
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Civil EngineeringHunan UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations