Comfortable Indoor Environment with Kang

  • Zhaojun WangEmail author
  • Yushan Wang
  • Teng Zhang
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Kang heating mode at rural houses in China is quite different from central heating system in urban areas. The relevant conclusions drawn from the research on thermal comfort of urban residential buildings are not applied to rural houses. It is necessary to study indoor thermal environment and thermal comfort at rural houses in China. A field study was conducted in winter at rural houses in the severe cold area, China. The environmental parameters and the occupants’ subjective thermal responses were collected simultaneously. The measurement results show that the mean indoor air temperature at rural houses in winter was 15.7 °C, much lower than that of 24.3 °C in urban residential buildings with central heating system. The neutral operative temperature was 17.9 °C, much lower than that of urban residential buildings, which was 23.5 °C. However, according to the subjective questionnaire, about 95% of the rural residents considered that the thermal environment was acceptable, and nearly 90% of the residents felt comfortable. Kang can not only increase indoor air temperature but also the indoor radiation temperature. Therefore, occupants feel comfortable in Kang environment. Kang has a long history and a huge cultural accumulation, which is a very suitable heating mode at rural houses in the severe cold area.


Thermal environment Thermal comfort Radiation Rural house Severe cold area 



The work was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (No. E2016033).


  1. 1.
    ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2017: ASHRAE Standard: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers Inc., Atlanta, USA (2017)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    International Organization for Standardization: ISO 7726:1998, Ergonomics of the Thermal Environment—Instruments for Measuring Physical Quantities. ISO, Geneva (1998)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang, Z.J., Ji, Y.C., Ren, J.: Thermal adaptation in overheated residential buildings in severe cold area in China. Energy Build. 146, 322–332 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huang, L., Zhu, Y.X., Ouyang, Q., et al.: Field survey of indoor thermal comfort in rural housing of northern China in heating season. Southeast Univ. (English Edn.) 26, 169–172 (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brager, G.S., De Dear, R.J.: Thermal adaptation in the built environment: a literature review. Energy Build. 27(1), 83–96 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ArchitectureHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Cold Region Urban and Rural Human Settlement Environment Science and TechnologyMinistry of Industry and Information TechnologyHarbinChina

Personalised recommendations