Pathogenic Chrysosporium-Related Fungi in Reptiles and Other Animals

  • Roman S. Ovchinnikov
  • Dmitry B. Vasyliev


Pathogenic Chrysosporium-related fungi (PCRF) have manifested themselves in recent decades as the serious causative agents of mycoses in captive and free-living reptiles. The anamorphic (asexual) genus Chrysosporium Corda comprises a number of species including Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), which is considered as a main fungal pathogen in reptiles in many countries of the world. Due to increased popularity of exotic reptiles as pets, these infections have become widespread around the world in recent decades. Taxonomy and nomenclature of Chrysosporium-related fungi have been revised radically. The present chapter puts together the recent advances in classification, physiology, etiological significance, epidemiology, and occurrence of PCRF-induced mycoses in different species of reptiles. Mycoses in mammals including humans associated with PCRF are also colligated together with our published and unpublished experiences in clinical and laboratory diagnosis, antifungal susceptibility, therapy, and prevention of reptile mycoses caused by Chrysosporium-related fungi. The data demonstrate that PCRF-associated mycoses are important aspects of veterinary mycology and herpetology and thus should be explored further.


Chrysosporium Nannizziopsis spp. Pathogenic fungi Mycosis Dermatomycosis Reptile 



We sincerely thank Marina M. Manoyan (Laboratory of Mycological Expertise, FSFI VGNKI, Moscow, Russia) for assistance in mycological diagnostic examination of clinical samples and general assistance.

Conflicts of Interests

There are none.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roman S. Ovchinnikov
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dmitry B. Vasyliev
    • 3
  1. 1.National Research Center on Epidemiology and Microbiology n.a. N.F. GamaleyaMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Federal Research CenterAll-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Veterenary Medicine n.a. K.I. Skryabin and Y.R. KovalenkoMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Department of HerpetologyMoscow State ZooMoscowRussia

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