Biotechnology Directive: A Major Step in Biotechnology Patent Law in Europe

  • Li Jiang


Biotechnology has become a new crucial technology of increasing economic growth. Nowadays, biotechnology has been widely applied in the fields of agriculture, pharmaceutical industry, medicine, energy, and environment protection. With the development of new processes in biotechnology, new adjustments are needed from established patent rules. Thus the Directive was drafted by the Commission to meet the demands of biotechnology industry. The Biotechnology Directive had successively treated the patentability of gene-related inventions, the exceptions to patent and moral issues. In addition, the Directive generally achieved the goal of harmonization of patent laws among the member states. To some extent, the Directive simplified the uncertainty of the patent law which is benefit to increase the research investment and development funds, but the remaining issue limiting its wide acceptance have been discussed in this chapter.


Biotechnology directive Bioeconomy Patent laws Stem cells Plant varieties Animal varieties European Union 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Li Jiang
    • 1
  1. 1.Shanghai International College of Intellectual Property, Tongji UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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