Advertisement

Chemotherapeutic Drugs and Gallbladder Cancer: Market Potential in India

  • Ruhi Dixit
  • Manoj Pandey
  • Punam Pandey
  • V. K. Shukla
Chapter

Abstract

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most fatal cancer of the biliary tract with poor prognosis. Silent in its infancy, this malignancy remains asymptomatic until aggressive disease has progressed to an advanced and non-curative stage. The overall mean survival rate for patients with GBC is less than 6 months, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5% with a high relapse rate. Treatment depends upon the stage of disease, patient’s age, nutritional status, performance status, and cardiopulmonary, hepatic, and renal functions. Complete surgical resection is considered the most curative modality for GBC. Chemotherapy has recently shown its effect on gallbladder cancer. Therapeutic agents, targeting cellular and molecular pathways, can effectively impede tumor growth. Newer drugs are being developed that work which target specific parts of cancer cells or their surrounding environments like tumor blood vessels. This chapter discusses market of chemotherapeutic drugs in India and market drives and government initiatives for the promotion of pharmaceutical sector in India with special emphasis on GBC.

Keywords

Gallbladder cancer Therapeutics Market drivers Family health Bioeconomy 

Notes

Acknowledgment

RD is grateful to the Department of Health Research, New Delhi, for providing financial support through the Women Scientists Scheme.

References

  1. Aaronson S (1991) Growth factors and Cancer. Science 254(5035):1146–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Cancer Society (2014) Cancer facts & figures 2014. American Cancer Society, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  3. American Cancer Society (2017) Cancer facts & figures 2017. American Cancer Society, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  4. Anticancer Drugs Market (Drug Type – Cytotoxic Drugs (Alkylating Agents, and Antimetabolites), Targeted Drugs (Monoclonal Antibodies and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors), and Hormonal Drugs; Therapy Type – Chemotherapy, Targeted Therapy, and Immunotherapy; Cancer Type – Lung Cancer, Breast Cancer, Leukemia, and Colorectal Cancer) – Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2017–2025 (2018)Google Scholar
  5. Chaturvedi K, Chataway J, Wield D (2007) Policy, markets and knowledge: strategic synergies in Indian pharmaceutical firms. Tech Anal Strat Manag 19(5):565–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Czito BG, Hurwitz HI, Clough RW, Tyler DS, Morse MA, Clary BM, Pappas TN, Fernando NH, Willett CG (2005) Adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy after resection of primary gallbladder carcinoma: a 23-year experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62(4):1030–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DeStoll M (1788) Rationismendendi, in nosocomiopracticovendobonensi. part 1 lugdunibatavarum, Haak et Socios et A et J HonkoopGoogle Scholar
  8. Dixit R, Pandey M, Tripathi SK, Dwivedi AND, Shukla VK (2017) Comparative analysis of mutational profile of sonic hedgehog gene in gallbladder cancer. Dig Dis Sci 62(3):708–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dixit R, Shukla VK, Pandey M (2012) Molecular alterations in gallbladder cancer. World J Pathol 1:7Google Scholar
  10. Dixit R, Shukla VK (2014) Why is gallbladder cancer common in the Gangetic Belt? In: Perspectives in cancer prevention-translational cancer research. Springer, New Delhi, pp 145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dixit R, Singh G, Pandey M, Basu S, Bhartiya SK, Singh KK, Shukla VK (2016) Association of methylenetetrahydrafolate reductase gene polymorphism (MTHFR) in patients with gallbladder cancer. J Gastrointest Cancer 47(1):55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dixit R (2015) Gene profiling of gallbladder cancer. Ph.D. thesis, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Dutta U (2012) Gallbladder cancer. Can newer insights improve the outcome? J Gastroenterol Hepatol 27(4):642–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dwivedi AND, Jain S, Dixit R (2015) Gall bladder carcinoma: aggressive malignancy with protean loco-regional and distant spread. World J Clin Cases 3(3):231–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frost & Sullivan (2017) Preference to targeted therapies and patient centric approaches drive transformations in oncology drug delivery marketGoogle Scholar
  16. Greene W (2007) The emergence of India’s pharmaceutical industry and implications for the U.S. Generic Drug Market. U.S. International Trade CommissionGoogle Scholar
  17. Houry S, Barrier A, Huguier M (2001) Irradiation therapy for gallbladder carcinoma: recent advances. J Hepato-Biliary-Pancreat Surg 8(6):518–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hundal R, Shaffer EA (2014) Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome. Clin Epidemiol 6:99–109Google Scholar
  19. Indian Pharmaceuticals Industry Report (2019) India brand equity foundationGoogle Scholar
  20. Kresl JJ, Schild SE, Henning GT, Gunderson LL, Donohue J, Pitot H, Haddock MG, Nagorney D (2002) Adjuvant external beam radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy in the management of gallbladder carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52(1):167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kumar A, Kumar M, Dixit R, Jaiswal R, Srivastava V, Pandey M (2012) Presence of human papilloma virus and EGFR expression does not predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in oral cancer. World J Surg Med Radiat Oncol 1:103–110Google Scholar
  22. McKinsey & Company report (2009) India Pharma 2020: propelling access and acceptance, realising true potentialGoogle Scholar
  23. Mhatre SS, Nagrani RT, Budukh A, Chiplunkar S, Badwe R, Patil P, Laversanne M, Rajaraman P, Bray F, Dikshit R (2016) Place of birth and risk of gallbladder cancer in India. Indian J Cancer 53:304–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Misra A, Misra S, Chaturvedi A, Srivastava PK (2002) Case report. Orbital metastasis from gall bladder carcinoma. Br J Radiol 75(889):72–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Misra S, Chaturvedi A, Misra NC, Sharma ID (2003) Carcinoma of the gallbladder. Lancet Oncol 4:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. National Cancer Registry Programme (2013) Three years report of population based cancer registries; 2009–2011. Indian Council of Medical Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  27. National Pharmaceutical Policy (2006) Department of Chemicals 2 and Petrochemicals, Government of India, Dec. 28, 2005Google Scholar
  28. Pandey M, Kannepali KK, Dixit R, Kumar M (2018) Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and its correlation with HPV status, EGFR, Her-2-neu, and GADD45 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol 16:20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pandey P, Pandey M, Singh KK, Dixit R, Shukla VK (2017) Health related quality of life in patients of the gallbladder cancer with treatment. Int J Biol Med Res 8(2):5948–5953Google Scholar
  30. Pignochino Y, Sarotto I, Peraldo-Neia C, Penachioni JY, Cavalloni G, Migliardi G, Casorzo L, Chiorino G, Risio M, Bardelli A, Aglietta M, Leone F (2010) Targeting EGFR/HER2 pathways enhances the antiproliferative effect of gemcitabine in biliary tract and gallbladder carcinomas. BMC Cancer 10:631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Qin TJ, Zhao XH, Yun J, Zhang LX, Ruan ZP, Pan BR (2008) Efficacy and safety of gemcitabine-oxaliplatin combined with huachansu in patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol 14(33):5210–5216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rakić M, Patrlj L, Kopljar M, Kliček R, Kolovrat M, Loncar B, Busic Z (2014) Gallbladder cancer. Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr 3(5):221–226Google Scholar
  33. Shukla VK, Das PC, Dixit R, Bhartiya SK, Basu S, Raman MJ (2012) Study of AP endonuclease (APEX1/REF1), a DNA repair enzyme, in gallbladder carcinoma. Anticancer Res 32(4):1489–1492Google Scholar
  34. Shukla VK, Khandelwal C, Roy SK, Vaidya MP (1985) Primary carcinoma of the gall bladder: a review of a 16-year period at the University Hospital. J Surg Oncol 28(1):32–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Todoroki T (2000) Chemotherapy for gallbladder carcinoma – a surgeon’s perspective. Hepato-Gastroenterology 47:948–955Google Scholar
  36. Valle J, Wasan H, Palmer DH, Cunningham D, Anthoney A, Maraveyas A, Madhusudan S, Iveson T, Hughes S, Pereira SP, Roughton M, Bridgewater J, ABC-02 Trial Investigators (2010) Cisplatin plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine for biliary tract cancer. N Engl J Med 362(14):1273–1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xiu AX, Hong TS, Hezel AF, Kooby DA (2010) Current management of gallbladder carcinoma. Oncologist 15:168–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhao DY, Lim KH (2017) Current biologics for treatment of biliary tract cancers. J Gastrointest Oncol 8(3):430–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruhi Dixit
    • 1
  • Manoj Pandey
    • 2
  • Punam Pandey
    • 1
  • V. K. Shukla
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of General Surgery, Institute of Medical SciencesBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute of Medical SciencesBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations