Structural Biology of NOD-Like Receptors

  • Xinru Yang
  • Guangzhong Lin
  • Zhifu Han
  • Jijie ChaiEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1172)


The nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) containing (NLR) proteins are a large family of intracellular immune receptors conserved in both animals and plants. Mammalian NLRs function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or host-derived danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). PAMP or DAMP perception activates NLRs which consequently recruit pro-caspase-1 directly or indirectly. These sequential events result in formation of large multimeric protein complexes termed inflammasomes that mediate caspase-1 activation for pyroptosis and cytokine secretion. Recent structural and biochemical studies provide significant insights into the acting mechanisms of NLR proteins. In this chapter, we review and discuss these studies concerning autoinhibition, ligand recognition, activation of NLRs, and assembly of NLR inflammasomes.


NOD-like receptors Pattern recognition receptors Inflammasome assembly Autoinhibition Ligand recognition 



The project was funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (2014CB910101 to J.C.), Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation (Humboldt Professorship to J.C.) and Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (Max-Planck Fellow) to J.C.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinru Yang
    • 1
  • Guangzhong Lin
    • 1
  • Zhifu Han
    • 1
  • Jijie Chai
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Life SciencesInnovation Center for Structural Biology, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, Tsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Max-Planck Institute for Plant Breeding ResearchCologneGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Biochemistry, University of CologneKoelnGermany

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