The Politics of Artificial Intelligence Behaviour and Human Rights Violation Issues in the 2016 US Presidential Elections: An Appraisal
The outcry from organizations and concerned bodies responsible for regulating and protecting the security and privacy of citizens’ data have suddenly been on the increase since the unearthing of the recent scandal regarding data gathered from the users of Facebook by Cambridge Analytica (CA) without prior consent. Data belonging to over 87 million Facebook users were admittedly passed on to third-party organizations who used them to manipulate the views and opinions of American citizens, a move largely believed influenced and altered the results and outcome of the 2016 US presidential elections in favour of certain individuals, an action largely believed undermines the Fundamental Human Rights (FHR) of the citizens affected. The Marxian Alienation Theory and Derrider’s critical and qualitative analytical method for evaluating arguments and data gathered on the subject matter of the paper were adopted for the study, with the view to highlight the inimical influences of AI politicking on the FHR of Americans and her institution of democracy. The paper observed that the Facebook and CA scandal has given room for questioning the integrity and credibility of future election outcomes in American. There is an alarming dearth of viable regulations and ethical codes governing the reckless use of AI politicking platforms in the public domain. The paper suggests measures of improving and securing the private rights and data of citizens generally. It also suggests measures for preserving the sanctity and credibility of future election results in American.
KeywordsArtificial intelligence behaviour Artificial intelligence politicking American elections American politics Cambridge Analytica Facebook Fundamental human rights Human rights violations Marxian alienation theory Presidential elections
- 1.Wogu, I. A. (2010). A preface to logic, philosophy and human existence (p. 634). Lagos, Nigeria: Pumack Educational Publishers. ISBN:978-978-50060-0-1.Google Scholar
- 2.Wogu, I. A. P. (2018). Plato’s republic and the crisis of leadership in the 21st century: Implications for political development in Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis from Covenant University, Ota Ogun State Nigeria.Google Scholar
- 3.Wogu, I. A. P., Olu-Owolabi, F. E., Assibong, P. A., Apeh, H. A., Agoha, B. C., Sholarin, M, A., Elegbeleye, A., & Igbokwe, D. (2017). Artificial intelligence, alienation and ontological problems of other minds: A critical investigation into the future of man and machines. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computing, Networking and Informatics (ICCNI 2017), October 29–31, 2017. Covenant University, Ota. https://doi.org/10.1109/iccni.2017.8123792, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8123792/?part=1, https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85047079881&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=ICCNI+&nlo=&nlr=&nls=&sid=02fcb90c5e2fe9f02e52574629f67b0d&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=12&s=CONF%28ICCNI+%29&relpos=51&citeCnt=0&searchTerm=.
- 4.Polhemus, L. (2016). Artificial intelligence and politics. In An Online Publication of Futurism. Retrieved from https://futurism.media/artificial-intelligence-and-politics.
- 5.Patterson, D. (2018). Campaigns are catching up to the consumer: How AI is shaping the world of politics.Google Scholar
- 6.Polonski, V. (2018). How artificial intelligence conquered democracy: Who is really running elections this days. In The Conversation. An Online publication. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/how-artificial-intelligence-conquered-democracy-77675.
- 7.Solon, O., & Graham-Harrison, E. (2018). The six weeks that brought Cambridge Analytica down: How revelations by the observer and others brought an unknown firm into the light and to its demise, amid international fury. In The Guardian Online. Retrieved on the June 13 from https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/may/03/cambridge-analytica-closing-what-happened-trump-brexit.
- 8.Solon, O. (2018). Cambridge Analytica whistleblower says Bannon wanted to suppress voters. In The Guardian Online. Retrieved from June 13, 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/may/16/steve-bannon-cambridge-analytica-whistleblower-suppress-voters-testimony.
- 9.Cox, J. (1998). An introduction to Marx’s theory of alienation. International Socialism: Quarterly Journal of the Socialist Workers Party (Britain), 79(5). Published July 1998 Copyright © International Socialism.Google Scholar
- 10.Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
- 11.Marilyn, K. (2013). Ex-post facto research: Dissertation and scholarly research, Recipes for success. Seattle, WA: Dissertation Success LLC. http://www.dissertationrecipes.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Ex-Post-Facto-research.pdf.
- 12.Balkin, J. M. (1987). Deconstructive practice and legal theory. Yale LJ 96(15).Google Scholar
- 13.Radowitz, J. (2017). Intelligent machines will replace teachers within 10 years, leading public school head teacher predicts. In Independent News Online. Retrieved on February 16, 2018 from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/intelligent.
- 15.Drum, K. (2018). You will lose your job to a robot—Sooner than you think! In Mother Jones. Online Blogger. Retrieved on February 26, 2018, https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2017/10/you-will-lose-your-job-to-a-robot-and-sooner-than-you-think/.
- 16.Greenfield, P. (2018). The Cambridge Analytica files: The story so far. In An Online Publication of the Guardian.com. Retrieved June 13, 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/mar/26/the-cambridge-analytica-files-the-story-so-far.
- 17.Cambridge Analytica.(2017). CA Political: Data driven campaigns. In An online Publications of Cambridge Analytica. Retrieved on June 22, 2018 from https://ca-political.com/.
- 18.Bhardwaj, P., & Lee, S. (2018). Here’s a state-by-state breakdown of Facebook users impacted by the Cambridge Analytica scandal. In An Online Publication of business insider.com. Retrieved on June 13 2018 from http://www.businessinsider.com/facebook-cambridge-analytica-affected-us-states-graphic-2018-6?IR=T.
- 19.Human Rights Watch. (2018). Human rights issues and events of 2017. In A Publications of Human Rights Watch Online. Retrieved on June 19, 2018 from https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2018/country-chapters/united-states.
- 20.Wang, M. (2018). Cambridge Analytica, big data and China. In A Publications of Human Rights Watch Online. Retrieved on June 19, 2018 from https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/04/18/cambridge-analytica-big-data-and-china.
- 21.Lomas, N. (2018). Pressure mounts on EU-US privacy shield after Facebook-Cambridge Analytica data scandal. In Online Publication of techcrunch.com. https://techcrunch.com/2018/06/12/pressure-mounts-on-eu-us-privacy-shield-after-facebook-cambridge-analytica-data-scandal/.
- 22.Chen, A. (2018). Cambridge Analytica and our lives inside the surveillance machine. In Online Publications of The New Yorker. Retrieved on June 19 2018 from https://www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/cambridge-analytica-and-our-lives-inside-the-surveillance-machine.
- 23.Tripathi, T. (2018). Facebook and Cambridge Analytica—Where lies privacy? In Online Publications. Retrieved on June 19, 2018 from https://www.ihrb.org/focus-areas/information-communication-technology/commentary-facebook-cambridge-analytica.
- 24.Collins, J. (2018). Where does the Cambridge Analytica scandal leave our privacy and democracy? In Online Publication of Human Right News, Views & Info. Retrieved on June 19, 2018 from https://rightsinfo.org/cambridge-analytica-scandal-leave-privacy-democracy/.
- 25.CISION Newswire. (2018). Class action lawsuit filed against Facebook and Cambridge Analytica for stealing and improperly using more than 71 Million users’ data. In Online Publication of CISION PR Newswire. Retrieved on June 19, 2018 from https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/class-action-lawsuit-filed-against-facebook-and-cambridge-analytica-for-stealing-and-improperly-using-more-than-71-million-users-data-300627281.html.
- 26.Remnick, D. (2018). Cambridge Analytica and a moral reckoning in silicon valley. In An Online Publications of the New Yorker. Retrieved on June 19, (2018) from https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/04/02/cambridge-analytica-and-a-moral-reckoning-in-silicon-valley.
- 27.White, J. B. (2018). Shareholder accuses Facebook of human rights violation at tense meeting. In An Online Publication of Independent News Online. Retrieved on June 19, 2018 from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/facebook-privacy-human-rights-shareholders-cambridge-analytica-a8378296.html.