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Diversity, Ecology and Utilization of Soil Fungi: Indian Scenario

  • C. Manoharachary
  • D. Nagaraju
Chapter

Abstract

Soil is a dynamic medium and complex ecosystem harbouring millions of microbes including fungi. Soil maintains a dynamic equilibrium of fungi and other microbes in spite of the constellation of physico-chemical factors. Vegetation along with multiple and minute habitats of varied physico-chemical setup influences the soil fungal communities. Soil fungi can be isolated by conventional, non-conventional and molecular methods. Interestingly, very little is known about the patterns of soil fungal diversity and their functional roles over large geographic scales. Most dominant fungi are Aspergilli and Penicilli followed by anamorphic fungi and others. There is a need to emphasize more on the ecological grouping of soil fungi. Soil and plant health is dependent on the functional activity of soil fungi. Soil fungi are known to play an important role in the cycling of elements, biogeographical demarcation, biogeochemical transformations, recycling of stored energy, degradation of organic matter, soil fertility and nutrient mobilization. The utility of fungi in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds, waste management, in medicine, agriculture, industry, carbon sequestration, biotechnological processes and other related activities, is very well known. Mother earth has been explored all over the world for fungi and microbes, still it harbours new and rare fungi and microbes which need to be discovered and classified accurately. Many soil fungi have been cultured artificially and are made available through germ plasm conservation centres. Further, in view of the importance attached to soil fungi, soil fungal floristics need to be surveyed and observed critically on individual capacity rather than en masse.

Keywords

Diversity Biotechnology Distribution Soil Ecology Fungi Identification 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Manoharachary
    • 1
  • D. Nagaraju
    • 2
  1. 1.Mycology and Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of BotanyOsmania UniversityHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyGovernment Degree CollegeWarangalIndia

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