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Modulation of Fungal Metabolome by Biotic Stress

  • Geane Pereira de Oliveira
  • Bruna de Almeida Martins
  • Matheus Thomaz Nogueira Silva Lima
  • Jacqueline Aparecida TakahashiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Filamentous fungi are ubiquitous microorganisms well known as one of the major sources of pharmaceuticals and other biotechnologically useful compounds. The amazing structural diversity of fungal secondary metabolites results from years of coevolution that selected unique mechanisms of resistance and communication in specific environments or in biotic relationships. Metabolite production is controlled by transcriptional regulation, and the production of carbon-based compounds is usually restricted to opportune situations. The dynamic nature of fungal metabolism consists on a complex in vivo process regulated by interactions between gene networks, but it can be modulated by generation of in vitro biotic stress. Both in vivo and in vitro interactions trigger activation of cryptic genes leading to changes in the fungal metabolic expression such as elicitation of new metabolite production, increase or minimization of the biosynthetic pathways, or even inhibition of some metabolic routes. While biosynthesis diversification and yield improvement are interesting tools for producing bioactive compounds, metabolite suppression can be used as a biotechnologically useful tool for decreasing toxin production. This review discusses the production of secondary metabolites by filamentous fungi under different natural biotic stresses caused by algae, bacteria, plants, and other organisms and the in vitro mimetization of these interactions leading to cryptic gene expression.

Keywords

Bioactive compounds Biotic stress Fungal metabolites Metabolome diversification 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG CEX APQ 02604/16), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, grant # 304922/2018-8), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), and National Institute of Science and Technology - INCT BioNat, grant # 465637/2014-0, Brazil.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geane Pereira de Oliveira
    • 1
  • Bruna de Almeida Martins
    • 1
  • Matheus Thomaz Nogueira Silva Lima
    • 2
  • Jacqueline Aparecida Takahashi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Exact Sciences InstituteUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte-MGBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Food Science, Faculty of PharmacyUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte-MGBrazil

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