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Fungal Enzymes: Sources and Biotechnological Applications

  • Naveen Kango
  • Uttam Kumar Jana
  • Ritumbhara Choukade
Chapter

Abstract

Fungi, being obligate heterotrophs, are natural decomposers and elaborate a number of enzymes. Currently, more than half of the industrial enzymes are of fungal origin and are being used successfully in diverse industrial processes and products. Some of the well-known areas are pulp and paper, textiles, detergents, food, feeds, nutraceuticals, and therapeutics. Production of industrial enzymes utilizes different fungal genera, Aspergillus being the most exploited one. Apart from protease, phytase, L-asparaginase, and few others, most commercial fungal enzymes are glycosyl hydrolases (cellulases, xylanase, mannanase, amylase, pectinase, β-fructofuranosidase, and others).

Cellulase and amylase (including glucoamylase) from Trichoderma sp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively, are exploited for bio-ethanol, textiles, and detergent industries. Fungal proteases, including keratinases, find application in detergent, food, leather, pharmaceutical, and waste management sectors. The role of fungal acidic pectinases in bringing down the cloudiness and bitterness of fruit juices is well recognized, while fungal phytases are being explored in enriching the nutritive value of poultry diets. L-Asparaginases sourced from molds are being examined for cancer therapy and mitigation of acrylamide formation in food. With the advent of biotechnological interventions, heterologous overexpression in suitable hosts, immobilization on novel matrices, and tailoring of fungal enzymes are being pursued. In this chapter, some of the important fungal enzymes are explored from recent perspective of their biotechnological applications.

Keywords

Fungi Enzymes Cellulases Xylanase Mannanase Amylase Fructosyltransferase Inulinase L-asparaginase 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naveen Kango
    • 1
  • Uttam Kumar Jana
    • 1
  • Ritumbhara Choukade
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyDr. Harisingh Gour VishwavidyalayaSagarIndia

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