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Biofuel: Types and Process Overview

  • Ajay Kumar ChauhanEmail author
Chapter
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Part of the Clean Energy Production Technologies book series (CEPT)

Abstract

Excessive use of conventional fossil fuels resulted in a hike in price, exhaustion, and change in climatic conditions. Therefore, a novel route to biofuel generation is another feasible option of sustainable process development. Continuous upgradation of technologies for biofuel generations from the first generation (1G) to the fourth generation (4G) gives new hopes to fulfill energy demands. Biofuel generation from multiple approaches such as physical, biological (includes microbial and enzymatic), chemical, and biochemical catalysis with nanotechnology from multiple feedstocks is the key to biofuel generation. Suitable conversion of cellulosic biorefinery and lignin biorefinery (via lignin valorization) is the key for complete utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Utilization of the biological methods includes the use of microbial machinery from different domains which might open the door toward an environmentally benign process. Nanotechnology and its potential application with 1G to 4G have future promises for increasing yield and integration of technology. So, this book chapter covers a detailed process overview of biofuel generations and its challenges with the hope of overcoming it.

Keywords

Sustainable Microbial machinery Catalysis 1G 4G Lignin valorization Nanotechnology 

Abbreviations

1G

First generation

2G

Second generation

3G

Third generation

4G

Fourth generation

BGA

Blue-green algae

C

Carbon

CBDH

Cellobiose dehydrogenase

Centimeter

cm

CH4

Methane

CNG

Compressed natural gases

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

DME

Dimethyl ether

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

ED

Entner-Doudorof

EMP

Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas

ETBE

Ethyl butyl ether

FAME

Fatty acid methyl esters

FT

Fischer-Tropsch

GHG

Greenhouse gases

H2

Hydrogen

HC

Hydrocarbons

HDO

Hydrodeoxygenation

Lignin peroxidase

LiP

LPG

Liquefied petroleum gas

LPMO

Lytic polysaccharide monoxygenase

Manganese peroxidase

MnP

Mn

Manganese

MPa

Mega Pascal

N2

Nitrogen

NOx

Nitrogen oxide

NPs

Nanoparticles

PBR

Photobioreactor

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

PM

Particulate matter

SNG

Syngas

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyIndian Institute of TechnologyRoorkeeIndia

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