Vagaries in the Management of Migrant Domestic Workers from the Philippines: A Case Study from Lebanon
The chapter provides a brief overview of labour migration of women from the Philippines to Lebanon, beginning with nurses in the 1980s (during the civil war), followed by live-in domestic workers from the 1990s (post-civil war) and their evacuation during the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 2006. The importance of labour emigration for the Philippines economy and the particularly entrepreneurial policy of maximizing labour remittances are shown as a countervailing pressure against periods of restrictions and bans on deploying Filipinas to Lebanon and other Middle Eastern countries due to abuse and exploitation. The role of the government of the Philippines in regulating the deployment of Overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) is given more prominence in this analysis compared with other accounts of the topic. Of particular importance are the ways in which the stringent protective regulations in the recruitment of domestic workers, such as the minimum wage requirement, are circumvented. The chapter concludes with an account of the unresolved deaths of four domestic workers from the Philippines in 2004 that involved the Philippines embassy in Beirut and resulted in the recalling of their ambassador back to Manila.
KeywordsInternational migration Domestic workers The Philippines Lebanon Domestic worker deaths
- Ager, M. (2004, May 12). President: ‘Maximum Penalty’ for OFW’s Death in Lebanon. Breaking News. http://www.inq7.net/brk/2004/may/12/text/brkofw_4-1-p.htm. Accessed on 20 June 2004.
- Aning, J. (2004, May 26). DFA Sends Probe Team to Lebanon. The Nation. http://www.inq7.net/nat/2004/may/26/text/nat10-1-p.htm. Accessed on 20 June 2004.
- Aning, J. (2008, December 21). Filipinas Move Up to Lebanon’s Restos. Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://www.inquirer.net/specialreports/lebanon/view.php?db=1&article=20081221-179222. Accessed on 29 Jan 2013.
- Asis, M. (2006). The Philippines Culture of Migration. Migration Policy Institute. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/philippines-culture-migration. Accessed on 20 April 2015.
- Balasa, W. (2004, June 7). Recruiter of Ill-Fated Pinay Maids Sought. People’s Journal.Google Scholar
- Bangko Sentralng Pilipinas. (2015). Economic and Financial Statistics. http://www.bsp.gov.ph/statistics/efs_ext3.asp. Accessed on 22 May 2016.
- Caritas. (2013). Caritas Lebanon Helping Evacuate Migrant Workers from Syria. Caritas Internationalis. http://www.caritas.org/2013/01/caritas-lebanon-helping-evacuate-migrant-workers-syria/. Accessed on 22 June 2015.
- Commission of Filipinos Overseas. (2014). Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos. http://www.cfo.gov.ph/images/stories/pdf/StockEstimate2013.pdf. Accessed on 22 June 2016.
- Corpuz, J. (2004, August 31). Filipina Jumps to Death After Rape. The Manila Times. http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2004/aug/31/yehey/top_stories/20040831top2.html. Accessed on 15 Oct 2004.
- Ghazal, R. (2005a, January 6). Lebanon to Kick Off Crisis Campaign. Daily Star.Google Scholar
- Ghazal, R. (2005b, January 13). Safe House Established for Victims of Human Trafficking. Daily Star. Google Scholar
- Human Rights Watch. (2010). Without Protection: How the Lebanese Justice System Fails Migrant Domestic Workers. Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org. Accessed on 22 June 2015.
- Human Rights Watch. (2015). Lebanon: Pledge Action on Human Rights. Press Release. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/10/29/lebanon-pledge-action-rights. Accessed on 15 Dec 2015.
- ILO. (2016). A Study of the Working and Living Conditions of MDWs in Lebanon. Beirut: International Labour Organization, Regional Office for Arab States.Google Scholar
- Infante, M. (2004, July 21). Recruiter of Ill-Fated OFW in Lebanon Nabbed. People’s Tonight.Google Scholar
- Jabr, F. (2005, January 9). A Scene of Asian Annihilation. An-Nahar.Google Scholar
- Jureidini, R. (2004). Women Migrant Domestic Workers in Lebanon. In S. Esim & M. Smith (Eds.), Gender and Migration in Arab States: The Case of Domestic Workers (pp. 63–84). Beirut: International Labour Organisation, Regional Office for Arab States.Google Scholar
- Jureidini, R. (2006). Chapter 6: Sexuality and the Servant: An Exploration of Arab Images of the Sexuality of Domestic Maids in the Household. In S. Khalaf & J. Gagnon (Eds.), Sexuality in the Arab World (pp. 130–151). London: Saqi Press.Google Scholar
- Jureidini, R. (2011). State and Non-State Actors During the Conflict in Lebanon, July–August 2006. In K. Koser & S. Martin (Eds.), The Migration-Displacement Nexus: Concepts, Cases and Responses (pp. 197–215). New York: Berghahan Books.Google Scholar
- Jureidini, R. (2014a). The Use and Abuse of Domestic Workers: Case Studies in Lebanon and Egypt. In W. Giles, M. Romero, & V. Preston (Eds.), When Care Work Goes Global: Locating the Social Relations of Domestic Work (pp. 95–116). Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Jureidini, R. (2014b). Migrant Labor Recruitment to Qatar. Doha: Bloomsbury/Qatar Foundation.Google Scholar
- Kostrz, M. (2015, April 30). An Ignored But Active Union. Executive. http://www.executive-magazine.com/economics-policy/domestic-worker-an-ignored-but-active-union. Accessed on 15 June 2015.
- Lawyers Beyond Borders. (2011, November 23–25). Building Partnerships for Justice for Migrant Workers. Conference Report, Bangkok.Google Scholar
- Moors, A., Jureidini, R., Ozbay, F., Sabban, R., & Jaber, H. (2009). Migrant Domestic Workers in the Middle East: Becoming Visible in the Public Sphere? In S. Shami (Ed.), Publics, Politics and Participation: Locating the Public Sphere in the Middle East and North Africa (pp. 151–176). New York: Columbia University Press and Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
- Pastrana, D. (2006, August 15). Arroyo Administration Abandons 30,000 Filipinos Trapped in Lebanon. http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2006/08/phil-a15.html. Accessed 3 Mar 2019.
- POEA (Philippine Overseas Employment Administration). (2013, October 25). POEA Cancels Recruiter’s License for Contract Substitution. Press Release. http://www.poea.gov.ph/news/2013/PROct2013AllSkills.pdf. Accessed on 15 June 2015.
- Raad, N. (2004, May 13). Investigation into Filipino Maid’s Death Will Be Reopened: Lawyers Arrive from Philippines. The Daily Star.Google Scholar
- Reyes, R., & Torres, J. (2015, August 11). Filipino Workers Still Look Overseas Despite Danger, Threats. UCANews.com. Accessed 3 Mar 2019.
- Rivera, B. (2004, May 25). Sack RP Staff in Beirut, Government Asked. The Nation. www.inq7.net/nat/2004/may/25/text/nat_9-1-p.htm. Accessed 3 Mar 2019.
- Romero, P. (2006, August 5). Evacuation of OFWs from Lebanon Halted. PhilStar. http://www.philstar.com/headlines/351092/evacuation-ofws-lebanon-halted. Accessed 3 Mar 2019.
- Sotelo-Fuertes, Y. (2004, May 18). Catherine’s Dream to Help Poor Kin Ends in Lebanon. The Nation.Google Scholar
- Young, M. (1999). Migrant Workers in Lebanon. Beirut: Lebanese NGO Forum.Google Scholar