Interactive System to Improve the Skills of Children with Dyslexia: A Preliminary Study

  • Jorge BueleEmail author
  • Victoria M. López
  • L. Franklin Salazar
  • Jordan-H. Edisson
  • Cristina Reinoso
  • Sandra Carrillo
  • Angel Soria
  • Raúl Andrango
  • Pilar Urrutia-Urrutia
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 152)


This paper describes a virtual system for the strengthening of linguistic abilities of children with dyslexia. To achieve this objective, an intuitive interface has been developed. The interface consists of three games (each with three levels of difficulty), all of them being part of a rehabilitation program. These applications combine visual and auditory messages that complement each other, in order to provide an immersive experience and to train more than one of the five senses at a time. The virtual environment has been developed in Unity 3D software, and the diffusion of sounds is performed through binaural hearing aids. To evaluate the performance of the presented proposal, a sample of eight infants (three girls and five boys) with ages between 8 and 12 years was chosen. As an inclusion criterion, it is determined that the user must have an age greater than 7 and less than 13 years, and as a criterion of exclusion the presence of some visual impairment and/or an auditory disorder or other disorder that affect the educational environment. It must be taken into account that this is a preliminary study and that the experimental results in the patients will be seen in the long term. Therefore, to evaluate the acceptance of the system, and to make future corrections a SUS usability test has been applied, with the following result (82.5 ± 0.52). At the end of the execution of the applications, a report is issued in which the specialist can control how the patient has progressed during sessions.


Human–computer interaction Dyslexia Open educational resources 



This work was financed in part by Universidad Técnica de Ambato (UTA) and Dirección de Investigación y Desarrollo (DIDE) under project PFISEI 26.


  1. 1.
    Cameron, C.E., Cottone, E.A., Murrah, W.M., Grissmer, D.W.: How are motor skills linked to children’s school performance and academic achievement? Child. Dev. Perspect. 10(2), 93–98 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baroutsis, A., Lingard, B.: Counting and comparing school performance: an analysis of media coverage of PISA in Australia, 2000–2014. J. Educ. Policy 32(4), 432–449 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Björkenstam, E., Dalman, C., Vinnerljung, B., Weitoft, G.R., Walder, D.J., Burström, B.: Childhood household dysfunction, school performance and psychiatric care utilisation in young adults: a register study of 96 399 individuals in Stockholm County. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 70(5), 473–480 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Skerfving, S., Löfmark, L., Lundh, T., Mikoczy, Z., Strömberg, U.: Late effects of low blood lead concentrations in children on school performance and cognitive functions. Neurotoxicology 49, 114–120 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ranning, A., Laursen, T., Agerbo, E., Thorup, A., Hjorthøj, C., Jepsen, J.R.M., Nordentoft, M.: School performance from primary education in the adolescent offspring of parents with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder—a national, register-based study. Psychol. Med. 48(12), 1993–2000 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mayes, S.D., Frye, S.S., Breaux, R.P., Calhoun, S.L.: Diagnostic, demographic, and neurocognitive correlates of dysgraphia in students with ADHD, autism, learning disabilities, and neurotypical development. J. Dev. Phys. Disabil. 30, 1–19 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berninger, V.W., Richards, T.L., Abbott, R.D.: Differential diagnosis of dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD: behavioral and neuroimaging evidence. Read. Writ. 28(8), 1119–1153 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goswami, U.: Sensory theories of developmental dyslexia: three challenges for research. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 16(1), 43–54 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eden, G.F., Olulade, O.A., Evans, T.M., Krafnick, A.J., Alkire, D.R.: Developmental dyslexia. Neurobiol. Lang. 815–826 (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Knoop-van Campen, C.A., Segers, E., Verhoeven, L.: The modality and redundancy effects in multimedia learning in children with dyslexia. Dyslexia 24(2), 140–155 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Diamanti, V., Goulandris, N., Stuart, M., Campbell, R., Protopapas, A.: Tracking the effects of dyslexia in reading and spelling development: a longitudinal study of Greek readers. Dyslexia 24(2), 170–189 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Papagiannopoulou, E.A., Lagopoulos, J.: P300 event-related potentials in children with dyslexia. Ann. Dyslexia 67(1), 99–108 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pradhan, B., Parikh, T., Sahoo, M., Selznick, R., Goodman, M.: Current understanding of dyslexia and pilot data on efficacy of a mindfulness based psychotherapy (MBR-RAM) model. Adolesc. Psychiatry 7(1), 44–55 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Caute, A., Cruice, M., Marshall, J., Monnelly, K., Wilson, S., Woolf, C.: Assistive technology approaches to reading therapy for people with acquired dyslexia. Aphasiology 32(sup1), 40–42 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brown, S.J., Games, D.: Brain Games, Mazes & Coloring Pages-Homeschooling with Minecraft: Dyslexia Games Presents an Activity Book-Great for Creative Kids with Dyslexia, ADHD, Asperger’s Syndrome and Autism, vol. 3. ACM, USA (2018)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ali, M., et al.: iCBLS: an interactive case-based learning system for medical education. Int. J. Med. Informatics 109, 55–69 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Renganathan, S.M., Stewart, C., Perez, A., Rao, R., Braaten, B.: Preliminary results on an interactive learning tool for early algebra education. In: 2017 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), pp. 1–5. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pedroli, E., Padula, P., Guala, A., Meardi, M.T., Riva, G., Albani, G.: A psychometric tool for a virtual reality rehabilitation approach for dyslexia. Comput. Math. Methods Med. 2017, 1–6 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidad Técnica de AmbatoAmbatoEcuador
  2. 2.Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPELatacungaEcuador
  3. 3.Purdue UniversityLafayetteUSA
  4. 4.Universidad Técnica de CotopaxiLatacungaEcuador

Personalised recommendations