Science Diplomacy: Strategic Initiative to Create a Buffer Zone in the Caribbean Colombian Marine Protected Area Seaflower

  • Fabián Ramírez-CabralesEmail author
  • Sergio Iván Rueda Forero
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 152)


It recognized the science diplomacy as a path to address national and common interest related to marine spaces declared as human heritage areas. Science diplomacy is an instrument that allows scientific cooperation between states and international organizations, and stakeholders interested in to obtain scientific evidence to the decision-making process at the political level in all senses. The Specially Protected Areas And Wildlife to the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (SPAW) Protocol is the main instrument to evaluate the possible course of action that allows us to propose the implementation of this initiative. To do so, it is necessary to consider aspects as sovereignty and maritime jurisdiction of state parties and non-state parties. Besides, are considered threats related to maritime transport. It analyzed the geographical conditions and the managerial institutions and stakeholders that participate in the management. Also, the uses of this strategic marine space within the Colombian Caribbean Sea are reviewed. The aim is to address the possibility to create a buffer zone in the boundary of the Marine Protected Area (MPA) Seaflower considering the borders of the Seaflower biosphere reserve.


Science diplomacy Buffer zone Caribbean Colombian Marine protected area Seaflower 


  1. 1.
    Langenhove, L.V.: Global science diplomacy for multilaterlism 2.0. Sci. Diplomacy (2016)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gorgone, H.R.: La Diplomacia Científico Tecnológica Como Herramienta De Internacionalización. Retrieved June 2017, from Repósitorio Institucional UFSC (2013, November 29):
  3. 3.
    The Royal Society.: New Frontiers in Science Diplomacy. Retrieved June 2018, from (2010):
  4. 4.
    “The Caribbean Sea”: The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th edn. Retrieved 11 Feb 2016, from (2015)
  5. 5.
    CEP.: The Caribbean Environment Programme—about Cartagena Convention. Retrieved 11 Feb 2016, from The Caribbean Environment Programme (2015):
  6. 6.
    UNEP: Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region and its Protocols, 2nd edn. UNEP, Kingston, Jamaica (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    UNEP.: Setting a Course for Regional Seas. Retrieved 13 Mar 2016, from UNEP—Regional Seas Programme (2014a):
  8. 8.
    UNEP.: Measuring Success: Indicators for the Regional Seas Convention and Action Plans. Retrieved 13 Mar 2016, from UNEP (2014b):
  9. 9.
    Patrick, S., Storm, B.: Council on foreign relations. In: Brown, K., Thaler, F.F. (eds.) Producers, & Media Strom. Retrieved 23 Jan 2016, from Global Governance Monitor/oceans:!/oceans?gclid=CN_QxJjLwMoCFSTecgodjDoHAw#Issue-Brief
  10. 10.
    Van Tatenhove, J.P.: How to turn the tide: developing legitimate marine governance arrangements at the level of the regional seas. Ocean and Coastal Manage. J 71, 296–304. Retrieved 23 Jan 2016, from (2013, January) Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lausche, B.: Guidelines for Protected Areas Legislation, vol. 26. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    PNNC-RUNAP.: Unique National Registry of Protected Areas—RUNAP. Retrieved 05 June 2016, from National Natural Parks of Colombia (2016):
  13. 13.
    Howard, M.W.: Evaluation Report Seaflower Biosphere Reserve Implementation: The First Five Years 2000–2005. Retrieved 2 Nov 2015, from UNESCO:
  14. 14.
    Minambiente.: National Policy for the Integral Management of Biodiversity and its Ecosystemic services (NPIMBES). (J. Weiskopf, Trans.) Bogotá, Colombia. Retrieved 10 Apr 2016, from (2011):
  15. 15.
    Minambiente.: Resolución número 107 (27 de Enero de 2005) Por el cual se declara un área marina protegida y se dictan otras disposiciones. Retrieved 22 Nov 2015, from Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible (2005, January 27):
  16. 16.
    Coralina-Invemar.: Atlas de la Reserva de Biósfera Seaflower. Archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, vol. 28. In: Gómez-López, D., Segura-Quintero, C., Sierra-Correa P., Garay-Tinoco, J. (eds.) Santa Marta, Colombia: Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras “José Benito Vives De Andréis”- INVEMAR- y Corporación para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina –CORALINA (2012)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    UNEP.: Seaflower Marine Protected Area—Colombia. Proposed areas for inclusion in the SPAW list. Retrieved 11 Feb 2016, from Unite Nations Environment Program—Caribbean Environment Program (2010, October 5):
  18. 18.
    Taylor, E., Baine, M., Killmer, A., Howard, M.: Seaflower marine protected area: governance for sustainable development. Marine Policy 41, 57–64 (2013, January 23)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Murillo, I., Ortiz, R.: Analisis de los metadatos sobre proyectos de investigación científica marina desarrollada en el area de la reserva de biosfera Seaflower. Secretaria Ejecutiva de la Comision Colombiana del Océano- Area Asuntos Marinos y Costeros, Bogotá D.C (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    UNEP.: Wider Caribbean Region Profile. Retrieved 11 Feb 2016, from UNEP (2005):
  21. 21.
    Alonso, D., Barbosa, H., Duque, M., Gil, I., Morales, M., Navarrete, S., … Vasquez, J.: Conceptualización del Subsistema de Áreas Marinas Protegidas en Colombia. Documento de Trabajo (Versión 1.0). Proyecto COL75241 Diseño e implementación de un Subsistema Nacional de Áreas Marinas Protegidas (SAMP) en Colombia. Retrieved 06 June 2016, from INVEMAR (2015):
  22. 22.
    Jones, P.J.: Governing Marine Protected Areas: Resilience through Diversity. Taylor and Francis, New York (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Speed, J.R., Levine, A.: What makes a “successful” marine protected area? The unique context of Hawaii’s fish replenishment areas (Elsevier, Ed.) Mar. Policy 44, 196–203 (2014, September 12)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coralina: Acuerdos 021 y 025 de 2005 Por medio del cual se delimita internamente el Área Marina Protegida de la Reserva de la Biosfera Seaflower y se dictan otras disposiciones. Retrieved 18 Feb 2016, from Registro Unico Nacional de Areas Protegidas (2005):
  25. 25.
    Fanning, L., Mahon, R., McConney, P., Angulo, J., Burrows, F., Chakalall, B., … Toro, C.: A large marine ecosystem governance framework. Marine Policy, 31(34), 434–443. Retrieved 19 Mar 2016, from Marine Policy (2007, July): Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vallega, A.: The regional approach to the ocean, the ocean regions, and ocean regionalisation—a post-modern dilemma. Ocean Coast. Manag. 45, 721–760 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lopez, V., Krauss, U.: National and Regional Capacities and Experiences on Marine Invasive Species, Including Ballast Waters, Management Programmes in the Wider Caribbean Region—A Compilation of Current Information. United Nations Environment Programme. CAB International Caribbean and Latin America Regional Centre (CLARC), Trinidad & Tobago (2006)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Biggs, C.: Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish: Pterois Volitans, Invasion of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Oceans. Retrieved 23 Aug 2015, from (2009):
  29. 29.
    Morris, J.J.: Invasive Lionfish: A Guide to Control and Management, vol. 1. Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute Special Publication. Marathon, Florida, USA (2012)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    IMO: International shipping facts and figures—information resources on trade, safety, security, environment. Retrieved 10 July 2016, from IMO-Knowledge Centre section: Ships and Shipping—Facts and Figures (2012 March 5):
  31. 31.
    AGCS: Panama Canal 100 Shipping safety and future risk. Retrieved 17 Jan 2016, from Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty (2014):
  32. 32.
    UNCTAD.: Review of Maritime Transport 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2016, from UNCTAD/RMT (2015):
  33. 33.
    The World Bank.: Panama Canal expansion: A smart route for boosting infrastructure in Latin America. Retrieved 30 July 2016, from The World Bank(2016, May 07):
  34. 34.
    Rodrigue, J.-P., Ashar, A.: Transshipment hubs in the New Panamax Era: The role of the Caribbean. J. Transp. Geogr. 10 (2015 October 2)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    US Department of Transportation.: Panama Canal Expansion Study_Phase I Report. Retrieved 17 Jan 2015, from U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MARITIME ADMINISTRATION (2013, November 20):
  36. 36.
    Webster, M.: Redrawing Global Shipping Routes: The Panama Canal Gets an Upgrade. Retrieved 17 Jan 2016, from Brown Brothers Harriman (2015, December):–the-panama-canal-gets-an-upgrade-pdf-data.pdf
  37. 37.
    Harrould-Kolieb, E.R., Herr, D.: Ocean acidification and climate change: synergies and challenges of addressing both under the UNFCCC. Clim. Policy J. Retrieved 22 Oct 2015 (2012, January): Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hassellöv, I.-M., Turner, D.R., Lauer, A., Corbett, J.J.: Shipping contributes to ocean acidification. Geophys. Res. Lett. Retrieved 22 Nov 2015, (2013, June 6):
  39. 39.
    Bekker, P.: The World Court Awards Sovereignty Over Several Islands in the Caribbean Sea to Colombia and Fixes a Single Maritime Boundary between Colombia and Nicaragua. Retrieved from The American Society of International Law (2013, Jan 15):
  40. 40.
    Gorricho, J.: Global Pacebuilding II: High Time for Environmental Diplomacy in the Caribbean. Retrieved 7 July 2016, from Governance and Development (2012, November 28):
  41. 41.
    Gual, S.M., Wang, T.C., Robinson, C.R.: Science Diplomacy. Retrieved June 2018, from science (2017, March):
  42. 42.
    Gluckman, P.D., Turekian, V., Grimes, R.W., Kishi, T.: Science Diplomacy: A Pragmatic Perspective from the Inside. Retrieved 20 June 2018, from Science & Diplomacy (2017, December):

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Escuela Naval Almirante PadillaCartagena D.T.y CColombia

Personalised recommendations