E-leadership Using WhatsApp, A Challenge for Navy Organizations: An Empirical Study

  • Rolando P. Reyes Ch.Email author
  • Luis Recalde Herrera
  • Galo Andrade Daza
  • Victor Gómez Bravo
  • Hugo Pérez Vaca
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 152)


Leadership is a fundamental characteristic of naval–military strategy. However, the development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has led to the leadership being complemented by an emerging paradigm called e-leadership. Therefore, it is interesting to evaluate this paradigm in a naval–military organization where they are currently using WhatsApp as a tool to issue and follow up on dispositions. Considering the perspectives of technology, communication, and trust proposed by Avolio (Organ. Dyn. 2003, [3]), He et al. (E-leadership strategy in virtual organizations and virtual teams, 2008, [8]) and Liu et al. (Leadersh. Organ. Dev. J. 39(7):826–843, 2018, [10]), a survey is applied to Lieutenant Commanders and Lieutenants of the organization. The results evidence a questionable use of e-leadership over WhatsApp. However, e-leadership fails to be effective due to the conflicts that are complicated to mitigate even in the traditional leadership of the organization.


Leadership E-leadership Naval Conflict WhatsApp 



This work was supported by the Academia de Guerra Naval - Armada del Ecuador and Dirección General de Educación y Doctrina and sponsored by Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolando P. Reyes Ch.
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Luis Recalde Herrera
    • 1
  • Galo Andrade Daza
    • 2
  • Victor Gómez Bravo
    • 2
  • Hugo Pérez Vaca
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Seguridad y DefensaUniversidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPESangolquíEcuador
  2. 2.Centro de Estudios Estratégicos Marítimos CEESMAGuayaquilEcuador

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