Data Types and Samples

  • Saiyidi Mat Roni
  • Margaret Kristin Merga
  • Julia Elizabeth Morris


Now that you have an overview of quantitative methods and their benefits in education research, you are ready to look at the types of data you are collecting (or want to collect) and the tests that may be appropriate to apply to them. In this chapter we will be discussing four types of data which are normally referred to in statistics: ratio, interval, ordinal, and nominal data. Further discussions on the data types can be found in Sect. 4.1. It is very important to determine the data types as these (and the nature of our sample) determine the statistical tests suitable for a given research objective.


Ordinal Nominal Scale Sample size 


  1. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A.-G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G∗Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4), 1149–1160. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saiyidi Mat Roni
    • 1
  • Margaret Kristin Merga
    • 2
  • Julia Elizabeth Morris
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Business and LawEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  2. 2.School of EducationEdith Cowan UniversityPerthAustralia
  3. 3.School of EducationEdith Cowan UniversityMount LawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations