Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging-Solo and Orchestra

  • Martyna ElasEmail author
  • Martyna Krzykawska-Serda
  • Michał Gonet
  • Anna Kozińska
  • Przemysław M. Płonka


Magnetic resonance is a physical phenomenon related to the possession of either electron or nuclear nonzero spin of molecules. It is the base of two important analytic methods, the application of which in biological and clinical research is completely different, despite this common basis, namely nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic (EPR, also called spin—ESR) resonance. Starting from this common physical root, this chapter compares the magnetic resonance-based, nuclear and electron-related techniques of imaging—NMR and EPR imaging (NMRI versus EPRI), focusing on the latter. EPRI is characterized from the very general perspective and described in detail including the basic modalities of the technique—continuous wave (CW), pulse or time-domain mode, and rapid scan (RS) EPRI. The description is supplemented with a handful of technical, software, and chemical details important for researchers, engineers, IT specialists and, hopefully, physicians who consider application of these techniques, equipment, programs, and “EPR reagents” in their work. The most recent biological and clinical aspects of EPRI are analyzed with a particular care, and pictured on the background of other related and not related research techniques, making the chapter a universal, interdisciplinary compendium of the common EPRI know-how.



We acknowledge the support of grants from the National Science Centre OPUS No. 2015/17/B/NZ7/03005 to ME and 2018/29/B/NZ5/02954 to MKS. ME is partially supported by Horizon2020 grant no 668776. Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Biotechnology of Jagiellonian University was a partner of the Leading National Research Center (KNOW) supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education., grant KNOW 35p/10/2015 to PMP.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martyna Elas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Martyna Krzykawska-Serda
    • 1
  • Michał Gonet
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anna Kozińska
    • 1
  • Przemysław M. Płonka
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and BiotechnologyJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland
  2. 2.NoviletPoznańPoland

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