Cancer Biomarker Discovery in Urine of Walker 256 Tumor-Bearing Models
Urine accumulates systemic changes in the body without homeostatic control; thus, it has the potential for early detection of cancer. In this chapter, five tumor-bearing models were established by injection of Walker 256 tumor cells into the subcutaneous, lung, brain, liver, or bone cavity of rats. Urine samples were collected at multiple time points after tumor cell inoculation. Dynamic urine proteomes were analyzed using label-free relative quantification. We found the urinary protein patterns changed significantly with cancer development, and some urinary proteins even changed at an early onset of tumor growth. Moreover, urine proteomics could differentiate the same cancer cells grown at different organs. We think that urine is a noninvasive and promising source in cancer biomarker discovery especially in the early phase.
KeywordsUrine Proteomics Cancer biomarkers Early detection Monitoring
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