Urine pp 229-237 | Cite as

Exhaled Breath: Another Biomarker Source That Is Complementary to Urine

  • Yongtao Liu
  • Youhe GaoEmail author


Biomarkers are measurable changes associated with disease. Exhaled breath provides many signs of bodily changes and has been proposed to be a good early biomarker source because it lacks homeostatic mechanisms and the information contained in the breath complements to other similar body fluids, such as urine and tears. Earlier biomarker detection can provide earlier diagnosis, which can bring about more choices and more time for treatment. The benefit of studying exhaled breath in animal models is that most interfering factors can be avoided and earlier changes in disease may be found.


Exhaled breath Animal model Biomarkers VOCs Device 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering Drugs and Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Life SciencesBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

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