Numerical Simulation of GFRP Laminate Under Low-Velocity Impact at Different Edge-Constrained Boundary Conditions

  • Mahesh
  • K. K. SinghEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Multidisciplinary Industrial Engineering book series (LNMUINEN)


FRP laminates are highly vulnerable to low-velocity impact (LVI) because it induces barely visible impact damage (BVID) inside the structure. This kind of fracture or damages is dangerous to the structure because these damages may go unnoticed ultimately leading to sudden and catastrophic failure of the structure. In this numerical simulation LVI is carried out using LS-DYNA on GFRP laminate impacted by a hemispherical striker of diameter 10 mm. Since in real-life situations structures may not be always constrained from all sides thus in this work behavior of GFRP laminate is examined when one edge (long or short) and opposite edge (long or short) of the laminate are constrained which resemble that of the cantilever and fixed type of beams, respectively. From results, it is observed that GFRP laminate under one short edge-constrained boundary condition showed 31.8% added deflection than one long edge-constrained boundary condition but one long edge boundary condition absorbed more energy than one short edge-constrained boundary condition. In case of two edge-constrained boundary conditions, two short edge-constrained boundary conditions showed partial deflection and partial penetration of the impactor while complete penetration of the striker is observed for two long edge-constrained boundary conditions without any deflection and it absorbed more energy by undergoing damage than two short edge-constrained boundary conditions.


FRP LVI Edge-constrained boundary condition 


  1. 1.
    Agrawal, S., Singh, K.K., Sarkar, P.K.: Impact damage on fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite—a review. J. Compos. Mater. 48(3), 317–332 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Singh, N.K., Singh, K.K.: Review on impact analysis of FRP composites validated by LS-DYNA. Polym. Compos. 36, 1786–1798 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rawat, P., Singh, K.K.: An impact behavior analysis of CNT-based fiber reinforced composites validated by LS-DYNA: a review. Polym. Compos. 38, 175–184 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bandaru, A.K., Patel, S., Ahmad, S., Bhatnagar, N.: An experimental and numerical investigation on the low velocity impact response of thermoplastic hybrid composites. J. Compos. Mater. 52(7), 877–889 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li, C.F., Hub, N., Yina, Y.J., Sekinec, H., Fukunaga, H.: Low-velocity impact-induced dam-age of continuous fiber-reinforced composite laminates. Part I: An FEM numerical model. Composites Part A 33, 1055–1062 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Singh, N.K., Rawat, P., Singh, K.K.: Impact response of quasi-isotropic asymmetric carbon fabric/epoxy laminate infused with MWCNTs. Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belingardi, G., Vadori, R.: Low velocity impact tests of laminate glass-fiber-epoxy matrix composite material plates. Int. J. Impact Eng. 28, 213–229 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aslan, Z., Karakuzu, K., Okutan, B.: The response of laminated composite plates under low-velocity impact loading. Compos. Struct. 59, 119–127 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jiang, Z., Wen, H.M., Ren, S.L.: Modeling delamination of FRP laminates under low velocity impact. In: 3rd International Conference on Applied Materials and Manufacturing Technology, pp. 012088. IOP Science, China (2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rawata, P., Singh K.K.: Damage tolerance of carbon fiber woven composite doped with MWCNTs under low-velocity impact. In: 11th International Symposium on Plasticity and Im-pact Mechanics, Proceedia Engineering, pp. 440–446. Elsevier, Delhi (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Balasubramani, V., Rajendra Boopathy, S., Vasudevan, R.: Numerical analysis of low velocity impact on laminated composite plates. In: International Conference on Design and Manufacturing, Proceedia Engineering, pp. 1089–1098. Elsevier, Chennai (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rawat, P., Singh, K.K., Singh N.K.: Numerical investigation of low-velocity impact in symmetric and asymmetric GFRP laminate with and without pre-crack. In: Advanced Materials Proceedings, pp. 152–155. Journal of VBRI Press (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shi, Y., Swait, T., Soutis, C.: Modelling damage evolution in composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact. Compos. Struct. 94, 2902–2913 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tita, V., de Carvalho, Jonas, Vandepitte, D.: Failure analysis of low velocity impact on thin composite laminates: experimental and numerical approaches. Compos. Struct. 83, 413–428 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rawata, P., Singh, K.K., Singh, N.K.: Numerical investigation of damage area due to different shape of impactors at low velocity impact of GFRP laminate. In: 1st international Conference on Advancements in Aeronautical Materials for Manufacturing, Materials Today: Proceedings, pp. 8731–8738. IOP Science, Hyderabad (2017)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology (ISM)Dhanbad JharkhandIndia

Personalised recommendations