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Precautions to Avoid Consequences Leading to Nanotoxification

  • Sharda Sundaram Sanjay
Chapter

Abstract

It is a truthful saying that “prevention is better than cure.” In many cases, the amount of a compound determines whether it will serve as a medicine or a poison. The use of nanoparticles in the field of medicine has taken a giant leap in providing enormous advantages for diagnostics, theranostics, and treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer, benign-tumors, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, because of the specific anomalous physicochemical properties of particles at the nanoscale level. But, at the same time, the noxious properties of nanomaterials—which arise from the very same specific anomalous properties attributed to their size, increased surface-to-volume ratio, shape, surface coating, surface charge, etc.—cannot be ignored. Because of their potential adverse effects on the living biosphere, there is growing concern about the toxic effects of nanocomposite materials. Therefore, evaluation of the toxic effects of nanoparticles represents an urgent need. The human body produces nanoparticles naturally inside its system—such as DNA, liposomes, and antigens—and many functional cellular organelles are of a nanosize. However, because of a lack of synergistic effects, engineered nanoparticles with a size and features mimicking those of biomolecules can sometimes initiate new mechanisms that cause injury by interacting with cells and organs, finally leading to toxification of biological systems. Green nanochemistry—and, thus, green nanoscience—can be considered an applicatory approach to green chemistry to develop safer nanotechnology. This chapter considers the consequences of nanomedicines leading to toxicological effects, so that preventive measures can be taken by practicing green nanoscience, i.e., analysis and applications of such nanomaterials fabricated in a biocompatible manner.

Keywords

Nanomaterials Nanomedicines Dendrimers Green nanoscience 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharda Sundaram Sanjay
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryEwing Christian CollegeAllahabadIndia

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