Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Pathophysiology: An Overview

  • Shyamal K. Goswami


Oxidative stress has long been attributed to the pathobiology of various degenerative diseases. However, despite its wide acceptance among the researchers and the clinicians, the mechanistic insight into the contribution of various oxidants to the aetiology of those disorders remained enigmatic for a long time. Also, the use of antioxidants as therapeutics had very limited success. In the past decade, a significant progress has been made in understanding the chemistry of various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their enzymatic mechanisms, their generation, their cellular locations and their targets of action. While some of the highly reactive species, viz. hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite, are deleterious for the cell, others like hydrogen peroxide and superoxide often act as bona fide signalling molecules. Such knowledge has revealed that a close network of redox reactions mediated by these species intricately regulate cellular functions. Any perturbation in those circuitries affects the cell physiology, causing distress for the related tissue and the organ. This review summarizes the present-day knowledge of those redox processes in the context of certain cardiovascular disorders.


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) Free radicals Cardiovascular disorders Redox signalling Apoptosis Atherosclerosis 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shyamal K. Goswami
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Life SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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