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Oxidative Stress and Heart Failure

  • Bodh I. JugduttEmail author
  • Bernadine A. Jugdutt
Chapter

Abstract

Heart failure (HF) remains a major cause of disability, suffering, and death worldwide. The prevalence of HF increases with age and at an alarming pace in the elderly population aged 65 years or more. Importantly, the increase in HF prevalence, first seen in developed countries and currently in developing countries as well, has taken place despite tremendous advances in HF therapy and efforts to encourage implementation of management guidelines. The magnitude of this HF pandemic is staggering, affecting nearly 26 million people across the world. There are several reasons for this continued increase in HF prevalence despite optimal therapy; of these, two that stand out include (i) the aging-induced cardiovascular (CV) remodeling that modifies disease expression and response to therapy and aging-related increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OXS) that augment adverse left ventricular remodeling after myocardial injury; ii) the lifelong exposure to CV disease (CVD) risk factors that increase ROS and OXS, as well as inflammation. Other pathways and mechanisms leading to HF that are yet to be addressed may also involve OXS and inflammation. This chapter focuses on the evidence for ROS-induced myocardial damage during HF progression and some potential pharmacological interventions and strategies for reducing the damage. In addition, some key issues facing translation of experimental successes with antioxidant therapy into successes in clinical practice on the real-world stage are addressed.

Keywords

Aging Healing Infarct size Hypertrophy Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction Hypertension Inflammation Myocardial infarction Mitochondria Oxidative stress Prevention Remodeling Reperfusion injury 

Abbreviations

ACS

acute coronary syndrome

ACE

angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACEIs

angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors

ADAM

a disintegrin and metalloproteinase

AMP

adenosine monophosphate

Ang II

angiotensin II

ARB

angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker

ARNI

angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

BH4

tetrahydrobiopterin

BNP

N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide

CABG

coronary artery bypass surgery

CAD

coronary artery disease

CANTOS

Canakinumab Anti-Inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study

CARE

cholesterol and recurrent events

cGMP

cyclic guanosine monophosphate

CKD

chronic kidney disease

CMR

cardiac magnetic resonance

CPB

cardiopulmonary bypass

CRP

C-reactive protein

CVD

cardiovascular disease

DM2

type 2 diabetes mellitus

ECG

electrocardiogram

ECM

extracellular matrix

eNOS

endothelial nitric oxide synthase

EPR

electron paramagnetic resonance

ESR

electron spin resonance

ET

endothelin

ETC

electron transfer chain

GDF

growth differentiation factor

GLP-1

antidiabetic glucagon-like peptide-1

GLP-1RA

glucagon-like peptide/receptor agonist

H2O2

hydrogen peroxide

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

HF

heart failure

HFmrEF

heart failure with midrange ejection fraction

HFpEF

heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

HFrEF

heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

hs-CRP

high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

IGF

insulin-like growth factor

IL

interleukin

IL-1ra

recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist

iNOS

inducible nitric oxide synthase

I/R

ischemia-reperfusion

IRA

infarct-related artery

IZ

infarct zone

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

LV

left ventricular

LVAD

LV assist device

MACE

major adverse cardiovascular events

MI

myocardial infarction

MMP

matrix metalloproteinase

MPO

myeloperoxidase

MRA

mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

MUGA

multigated acquisition scan

NDEA

N-nitrosodiethylamine

NEP

neprilysin

NADPH

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NDMA

N-nitrosodimethylamine

NIZ

noninfarct zone

•NO

nitric oxide

NOO

NO-derived peroxynitrite

NOS

nitric oxide synthase

NOX

NADPH oxidase

NSTEMI

non-ST-segment elevation MI

O2

oxygen

OFRs

oxygen free radicals

OPN

osteopontin

OXS

oxidative stress

•OH

hydroxyl radical

PCI

percutaneous coronary intervention

PDGF

platelet-derived growth factor

PKG

phosphokinase G

PPCI

primary PCI

O2•

superoxide anion radical

RAAS

renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

RCT

randomized clinical trial

RIPC

remote ischemic preconditioning

ROS

reactive oxygen species

SGLT2

sodium glucose cotransporter-2

SLPI

secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor

SOD

superoxide dismutase

SPARC

secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine

STEMI

ST-segment elevation MI

TIMP

tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase

TGF

transforming growth factor

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

VSMC

vascular smooth muscle cell

Notes

Acknowledgement

None.

Funding Sources

None.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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