Coastal Ecosystems and Services

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
  • Swarnam Palanivel
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan


Coastal areas occupy one of the most dynamic interfaces on Earth, at the boundary between land and sea, and they support some of the most diverse and productive habitats. The physical environment of the coastal region is highly variable within relatively small spatial extent. The interactions between biological component and their surroundings are more dynamic through flow of matter and energy which makes the coastal ecosystems very unique than the terrestrial ecosystems. The most important coastal ecosystems are mangrove forests, coral reefs, other wetlands, seagrass beds, marshes, rocky and sandy beaches, estuarine, and tidal flats which also provide essential nursery and feeding areas for many coastal and oceanic aquatic species. These ecosystems provide provisioning, protective, and regulating services. Besides these regions are highly influenced by the presence of agro-ecosystem which is highly managed and aimed at providing economic benefit and livelihood to coastal communities. The coastal ecosystems are affected by terrestrial and marine influences. Loss or reduction of ecosystem goods and services or loss of biodiversity beyond certain limits can impair the natural functioning of ecosystems. Therefore, it is vital to conserve these valuable ecosystems and should be managed for sustainable economic benefit.


Coastal habitats Marsh Seagrass Agro-ecosystem Economic value Ecosystem services 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
    • 1
  • Swarnam Palanivel
    • 1
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research InstitutePort BlairIndia
  2. 2.Zoological Survey of India – ANRCPort BlairIndia

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