Alternative Farming Systems for Diversification and Conservation of Agro-biodiversity

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
  • Swarnam Palanivel
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan


Food insecurity and loss of biodiversity are the two major juxtaposed challenges facing the humanity. The situation is further aggravated by resource degradation mostly as a result of intensive agriculture and climate change impact particularly in the coastal areas of tropical countries. This calls for alternative approaches to conventional intensive farming that should enhance agricultural production and ecosystem services besides achieving agricultural diversification to instil stability and sustainability to the production system. In this chapter the status of coastal agriculture is reviewed vis-à-vis challenges and threat to agricultural production with the focus on the impact of modern agriculture on biodiversity, ecosystem, and the society. The importance of diversification to ensure regional food security and conservation of agro-biodiversity is discussed in details. This chapter also attempts to justify the need for alternative farming systems, its definition, major types, and the major alternative farming systems suitable for the tropical coastal region. At the end the impacts of these alternative farming systems were compared in terms of its suitability, promotion of diversity, input use, ecosystem services, resilience capacity, labour engagement, and use of traditional knowledge biodiversity conservation.


Agro-biodiversity Farming Systems Types Tropical Region Challenges 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
    • 1
  • Swarnam Palanivel
    • 1
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research InstitutePort BlairIndia
  2. 2.Zoological Survey of India – ANRCPort BlairIndia

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