Advertisement

Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Coastal Areas

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
  • Swarnam Palanivel
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan
Chapter

Abstract

Climate-related changes represent potential additional stresses on the coastal ecosystems that are already under pressure from degradation and non-climatic pressure. The potential impact of these pressures on the coastal areas and livelihood of coastal communities necessitate the need for researchers, policymakers, residents, and other key stakeholders to work together to establish a framework for adaptation that is integrated within current coastal management processes and practices and takes a broader view of the subject. There are three important coastal adaptation strategies, viz. protection, accommodation, and retreat. All these measures involve technologies, often available or known to the scientific communities. The major challenge to adaptation is access to the adaptation measures, participation by all the stakeholders, and coordination at different levels. At the same time, mitigation methods are centred on adjustment or modification in transportation, shelter, food production, energy, and carbon storage and bioengineering. This chapter describes various options available for adaptation and mitigation strategies for natural as well as human-managed systems.

Keywords

GHG emissions Resilience Vulnerability Planned retreat Autonomous adaptation 

References

  1. Arvai J, Bridge G, Dolsak N, Franzese R, Koontz T, Luginbuh A et al (2006) Adaptive management of the global climate problem: bridging the gap between climate research and climate policy. Clim Chang 78(1):217–225.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-006-9094-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bijlsma L, Ehler CN, Klein RJT, Kulshrestha SM, McLean RF, Mimura N, Nicholls RJ, Nurse LA et al (1996) In: Watson RT, Zinyowera MC, Moss RH (eds) Coastal zones and small islands. Climate change 1995: impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change: scientific-technical analyses. Contribution of working group II to the second assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 289–324Google Scholar
  3. Burney JA, Steven J, Davisc SJ, Lobella DB (2010) Green house gas mitigation by agricultural intensification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(26):12052–12057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen X, Zong Y (1999) Major impacts of sea-level rise on agriculture in the Yangtze Delta area around Shanghai. Appl Geogr 19:69–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Easterling W, Apps M (2005) Assessing the consequences of climate change for food and forest resources: a view from the IPCC. In: Salinger J, Sivakumar M, Motha RP (eds) Increasing climate variability and change. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  6. Easterling WE, Aggarwal PK, Batima P, Brander KM, Erda L, Howden SM et al (2007) Food, fibre and forest products. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge., 2007, pp 273–313Google Scholar
  7. Glick P, Staudt A, Stein B (2009) A new era for conservation: review of climate change adaptation literature. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC, p 69Google Scholar
  8. Hannah L (2010) Climate change biology. Academic, Burlington, p 470Google Scholar
  9. IPCC (2001) Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Dai X, Maskelland K, Johnson CA (eds) Climate change: the scientific basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 881Google Scholar
  10. IPCC (2007) Assessing key vulnerabilities and the risk from climate change. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 779–810Google Scholar
  11. IPCC (2007a) An assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007: synthesis report, p 73Google Scholar
  12. IPCC (2007b) Climate change 2007. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p 996Google Scholar
  13. IPCC (2012) In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Dahe Q, Dokken DJ et al (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation: special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139177245.333333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kareiva P, Enquist C (2008) Synthesis and conclusions—preliminary review of adaptation options for climate-sensitive ecosystems and resources. In: Julius SH, West JM (eds) A report by the U.S. climate change science program and the subcommittee on global change research. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, pp 9–66Google Scholar
  15. Klein RJT, Nicholls RJ (1999) Assessment of coastal vulnerability to climate change. Ambio 28(2):182–187Google Scholar
  16. Klein RJT, Buckley EN, Nicholls RJ, Ragoonaden S, Aston J, Capobianco M, Mizutani M, Nunn PD (2000) Coastal adaptation. In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Martens JW, van Rooijen SN, Van Wie McGrory L (eds) Methodologies and technological issues in technology transfer, A Special Report of IPCC Working Group III. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, pp 349–372Google Scholar
  17. Lal M (2004) Climate change and small island developing countries of the South Pacific. Fijian Stud 2:15–31Google Scholar
  18. Lawler JJ (2009) Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1162(1):79–98.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04147.x19432646CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Maddrell RJ (1996) Managed coastal retreat, reducing flood risks and protection costs, Dungeness Nuclear Power Station, UK. Coast Eng 28:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mazria E, Kershner K (2008) The 2030 blueprint: solving climate change saves billions. Architecture 2030, Santa FeGoogle Scholar
  21. Michel D, Pandya A (2010) Coastal zones and climate change. The Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  22. Nelson GC, Rosegrant MW, Koo J, Robertson R, Sulser T, Zhu T, Ringler C, Msangi S, Palazzo A, Batka M, Magalhaes M, Santos RV, Ewing M, Lee D (2009) Climate change- impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, p 30Google Scholar
  23. Nicholls H, Nicholls RJ (2008) Global Sea-level rise and coastal vulnerability. Sustain Sci 3(1):5–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nunn PD, Veitayaki J, Ram-Bidesi V, Venisea A (1999) Coastal issues for oceanic islands: implications for human futures. Nat Res Forum 23:195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pittock AB, Jones RN (1999) Adaptation to what, and why? Environ Monit Assess 61:9–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Poff NLR, Zimmerman JKH (2010) Ecological responses to altered flow regimes: a literature review to inform the science and management of environmental flows. Freshw Biol 55(1):194–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pope J (1997) Responding to coastal erosion and flooding damages. J Coast Res 13(3):704–710Google Scholar
  28. Rosenzweig C, Tubiello FN (2007) Adaptation and mitigation strategies in agriculture: an analysis of potential synergies. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 12(5):855–873.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-007-9103-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Smith P, Martino D, Cai Z, Gwary D, Janzen H et al (2008) Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. Philos Trans R Soc B 363:789–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. UNFCCC (2006) Technologies for adaptation to climate change. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Bonn, p 40Google Scholar
  31. Veitayaki J (1998) Traditional and community-based marine resources management system in Fiji: an evolving integrated process. Coast Manag 26:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
    • 1
  • Swarnam Palanivel
    • 1
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research InstitutePort BlairIndia
  2. 2.Zoological Survey of India – ANRCPort BlairIndia

Personalised recommendations