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Plastid Retrograde Signals: More to Discover

  • Jeannette Pfalz
  • Ralf OelmüllerEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

DNA and the machinery for gene expression have been discovered in chloroplasts during the 1960s. It was soon evident that the chloroplast genome is small, that many genes for chloroplast-localized proteins must reside in the nucleus, and that the expression of the genes in both cellular compartments must be coordinated. In the 1970s, the first evidence for plastid signals controlling nuclear gene expression was provided for plastid ribosome-deficient mutants. This review describes the discovery and the first studies on plastid-to-nucleus signaling. Today, many retrograde signals are known, which coordinate plastid and nuclear gene expression during the development of the organelle and in response to environmental changes. The nucleus receives information about the flux through the heme branch of the tetrapyrrole pathway, the expression of plastid genes, the metabolite stage in the organelle, and the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron flow. Singlet oxygen generated during light stress and breakdown products of carotenoids initiate signaling events in the organelle which alter nuclear gene expression. Operational signals permanently coordinate gene expression in both organelles. The biosynthesis of phytohormones like jasmonic, salicylic, and abscisic acids or cytokinins starts in the plastids, and these hormones became crucial players in coordinating plastid and nuclear gene expression under stress. Methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate, a biochemical intermediate of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway, alters the chromatin structure in the nucleus which in turn affects the expression of a particular subset of stress-inducible genes. Dual targeted proteins with plastid and nuclear locations participate in the interorganellar communication. We discuss our current knowledge about retrograde signaling and address open questions.

Keywords

Jasmonic acid Photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes Plastids Redox Salicylic acid Signaling Singlet oxygen Tetrapyrroles 

Abbreviations

ABI4

abscisic acid insensitive 4

β-CC

β-cyclocitral

GLK1/2

golden 2-like 1/2

GUN1/4/5

genomes uncoupled 1/4/5

EX1/EX2

executer 1/2

HDS1

hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate synthase

LHCB

gene-encoding photosystem II chlorophyll a/b binding protein

MEcPP

methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate

Mg-protop-IX

Mg-protoporphyrin IX

ΔPET

impairment of photosynthetic electron transport chain

PGE

plastid gene expression

PhANG

photosynthesis-Associated Nuclear Genes

PQ

plastoquinone

PRIN2

plastid redox-insensitive 2

PSI

photosystem I

ROS

reactive oxygen species

SAL1

inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase

TFs

transcription factors

STN7

thylakoid protein kinase 7

WHY1

whirly 1

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Matthias-Schleiden-InstituteFriedrich-Schiller-University JenaJenaGermany

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