• Sadao NagaokaEmail author


This book provides detailed case studies of 12 groups of 15 major innovative drugs discovered in Japan, and in doing so investigates the sources of their innovations. It discusses: (1) the knowledge sources of the drug-discovery projects; (2) the dynamic interaction between drug discovery and scientific progress; (3) the causes of unexpected difficulties; (4) the capture of serendipity and luck; and (5) the uniqueness and competition of discovery research. The case studies cover the following drugs (generic name of molecules followed by product names): compactin/pravastatin (Mevalotin, Pravachol), rosuvastatin (Crestor), leuprorelin (Leuplin, Leupron, Viadur), ofloxacin (Tarivid, Floxin) and levofloxacin (Cravit, Levaquin), tamsulosin (Harnal, Flomax), pranlukast (Onon), tacrolimus (Prograf), pioglitazone (Actos, Glustin), donepezil (Aricept), candesartan (Blopress, Atacand, Amitas), tocilizumab (Actemra), and nivolumab (Opdivo). It elucidates the concrete mechanism by which science becomes a source of innovation, especially given that science is often incomplete when the discovery project starts. It clarifies the sources and consequences of uncertainties in drug discovery. It expands our understanding of competitive mechanism of drug discovery.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tokyo Keizai UniversityTokyoJapan

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