Soil Erosion and Management Strategies

  • Shakeel Ahmad Bhat
  • Mehraj U. Din Dar
  • Ram Swaroop Meena


Rising population and decreasing cultivable land pose a great challenge to modern agriculture. The agricultural production has to be balanced with the ever-increasing population to meet the demands of food supply. These changes have led to intensification of agriculture resulting into conversion of natural vegetation areas to agricultural land. This continued overexploitation of land resources in combination with climatic factors results in removal of the top fertile layer of soil. On the global scale, the period of the earliest significant change in land use corresponds to a first wave of the soil erosion. The areas with human intervention have high rate of soil erosion of 2.92 tha−1 year−1. In order to strike a balance between agricultural output and conservation, soil erosion control becomes very essential component. The control and prevention of soil erosion necessitate the development of an integral soil erosion control system with the incorporating methods based on the engineering, agricultural cultivation technology, law enforcement, biological methods, land planning, and management. Soil conservation structures along with advanced soil loss models would be prerequisite toward land management. This chapter addresses the dynamics of erosion and agricultural sustainability through different soil management strategies, which poses challenges similar to those of quantification of future changes in climate or agricultural systems. The chapter is focused on the analyzing and quantifying the effects of changes in land use and management of the eroded soils in the agriculture.


Agronomic soil management Engineering soil management Soil erosion Water erosion Wind erosion 




cc, cm3

Cubic centimeter


Rainfall erosivity


Five-year plan


Liter per second


Modified Universal Soil Loss


Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation


Soil organic matter




Universal Soil Loss Equation


  1. Abrahams PW (2012) Involuntary soil ingestion and geophagia: a source and sink of mineral nutrients and potentially harmful elements to consumers of earth materials. Appl Geochem 27:954–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlstrom A, Raupach MR, Schurgers G, Smith B, Arneth A, Jung M, Reichstein M, Canadell JG, Friedlingstein P, Jain AK, Kato E, Poulter B, Sitch S, Stocker BD, Viovy N, Wang YP, Wiltshire A, Zaehle S, Zeng N (2015) Carbon cycle. The dominant role of semi-arid ecosystems in the trend and variability of the land, CO2 sink. Science 348:895–899CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews SS, Karlen DL, Cambardella CA (2004) The soil management assessment framework. Soil Sci Soc Am 68:1945–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrianaki M, Bernasconi SM, Nikolaidis NP (2017) Quantifying the incipient development of soil structure and functions within a glacial fore fieldChrono sequence. Adv Agron 142:215–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anonymous (1979) River Valley project basin and flooded rivers project in the ninth five-year plan, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  6. Anonymous (2010) Desert view of an area prone to erosion. Data Source:
  7. Asadi H, Ghadiri H, Rose CW, Rouhipour H (2007) Interrill soil erosion processes and their interaction on low slopes. Earth Surf Process Landf 32:711–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashoka P, Meena RS, Kumar S, Yadav GS, Layek J (2017) Green nanotechnology is a key for eco-friendly agriculture. J Clean Prod 142:4440–4441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashraf M (2004) Some important physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in plants. Flora-Morphol Distrib Funct Ecol Plants 199:361–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bali JS (1978) Design of bench terraces in the hills. Paper presented at the 16th Annual meeting of the Indian Society of Agril Engrs KhargpurGoogle Scholar
  11. Banwart S, Bernasconi SM, Bloem J, Blum W, Brandao M, Brantley S, Lundin L (2011) Soil processes and functions in critical zone observatories: hypotheses and experimental design. Vadose Zone J 10:974–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bedoussac L, Justes E (2010) Dynamic analysis of competition and complementarity for light and N use to understand the yield and the protein content of a durum wheat–winter pea intercrop. Plant Soil 330:37–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beven K, Wood EF (1983) Catchment geomorphology and the dynamics of runoff contributing areas. J Hydrol 65(1–3):139–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bezborodov GA, Shadmanov DK, Mirhashimov RT, Yuldashev T, Qureshi AS, Noble AD, Qadir M (2010) Mulching and water quality effects on soil salinity and sodicity dynamics and cotton productivity in Central Asia. Agric Ecosys Environ 138:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhat SA, Hamid I, Dar MD, Rasool D, Pandit BA, Khan S (2017) Soil erosion modeling using RUSLE & GIS on micro watershed of J&K. J Pharm Phytochem 6:838–842Google Scholar
  16. Bizoza AR, De Graaff J (2012) Financial cost–benefit analysis of bench terraces in Rwanda. Land Degrad Dev 23:103–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blum A (2005) Drought resistance, water-use efficiency, and yield potential—are they compatible, dissonant, or mutually exclusive? Aust J Agric Res 56:1159–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boix-Fayos C, Martínez-Mena M, Calvo-Cases A, Castillo V, Albaladejo J (2005) Concise review of interrill erosion studies in SE Spain (Alicante and Murcia): erosion rates and progress of knowledge from the 1980s. Land Degrad Dev 16:517–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Borgatti L, Soldati M (2010) Landslides and climatic change. In: Geomorphological hazards and disaster prevention, pp 87–96Google Scholar
  20. Bork HR (1989) Soil erosion during the past millennium in Central Europe and its significance within the geometrodynamic of the Holocene. Catena Suppl 15:121–131Google Scholar
  21. Brunner AC, Park SJ, Ruecker GR, Dikau R, Vlek PC (2004) Catenary soil development influencing erosion susceptibility along hillslope in Uganda. Catena 58:115–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bukari FM (2013) Indigenous perceptions of soil erosion, adaptations and livelihood implications: the case of maize farmers in the Zampe Community of Bole, Ghana. J Nat Res Dev 3:114–120Google Scholar
  23. Buragohain S, Sharma B, Nath JD, Gogaoi N, Meena RS, Lal R (2017) Impact of ten years of bio-fertilizer use on soil quality and rice yield on an inceptisol in Assam, India. Soil Res. Scholar
  24. Cai L, Xu Z, Bao P, He M, Dou L, Chen L, Zhu YG (2015) Multivariate and geostatistical analyses of the spatial distribution and source of arsenic and heavy metals in the agricultural soils in Shunde, Southeast China. J Geochem Explor 148:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chaplot V, Brozec EC, Silvera N, Valentin C (2005) Spatial and temporal assessment of linear erosion in catchments under sloping lands of northern Laos. Catena 63:167–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chappell A, Webb NP, Butler HJ, Strong CL, McTainsh GH, Leys JF, Viscarra RA (2013) Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global source of atmospheric CO2. Glob Chang Biol 19:3238–3244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chazdon RL (2008) Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science 320:1458–1460CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Coppus R, Imeson AC (2002) Extreme events controlling erosion and sediment transport in a semi-arid sub-Andean valley. Earth Surf Process Landf 27:1365–1375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Corre-Hellou G, Dibet A, Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Crozat Y, Gooding M, Ambus P, Dahlmann C, von Fragstein P, Pristeri A, Monti M, Jensen ES (2011) The competitive ability of pea–barley intercrops against weeds and the interactions with crop productivity and soil N availability. Field Crop Res 122:264–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. D’costa VM, McGrann KM, Hughes DW, Wright GD (2006) Sampling the antibiotic resistome. Science 311:374–377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dadhich RK, Meena RS (2014) Performance of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in response to foliar spray of thiourea and thioglycollic acid under different irrigation levels. Indian J Ecol 41(2):376–378Google Scholar
  32. Dadhich RK, Meena RS, Reager ML, Kansotia BC (2015) Response of bio-regulators to yield and quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czernj and Cosson) under different irrigation environments. J Appl Nat Sci 7(1):52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Datta R, Baraniya D, Wang YF, Kelkar A, Moulick A, Meena RS, Yadav GS, Ceccherini MT, Formanek P (2017a) Multi-function role as nutrient and scavenger off reeradical in soil. Sustain MDPI 9:402. Scholar
  34. Datta R, Kelkar A, Baraniya D, Molaei A, Moulick A, Meena RS, Formanek P (2017b) Enzymatic degradation of lignin in soil: a review. Sustain MDPI 9:1163. 1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Decaëns T, Jiménez JJ, Gioia C, Measey GJ, Lavelle P (2006) The values of soil animals for conservation biology. Eur J Soil Biol 42:23–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dhakal Y, Meena RS, De N, Verma SK, Singh A (2015) Growth, yield and nutrient content of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in response to INM in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Bangladesh J Bot 44(3):479–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dhakal Y, Meena RS, Kumar S (2016) Effect of INM on nodulation, yield, quality and available nutrient status in soil after harvest of green gram. Legum Res 39(4):590–594Google Scholar
  38. Dokuchaev VV (1948) Russian Chernozem. In: Selected works of Dokuchaev VV, Moscow, vol. 1, pp 14–419. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd., Jerusalem (for USDA-NSF), Publ. by S. Monson, 1967. (Transl. into English by N. Kaner). 1883/1948/1967Google Scholar
  39. Dokuchaiev VV (1900) Cited by Glink KD (1927) Dokuchaiev’s ideas in the development of Pedology and Cognate Sciences. Acad. Sci. USSR, Pedofil-1, LeningardGoogle Scholar
  40. Dominati E, Patterson M, Mackay A (2010) A framework for classifying and quantifying the natural capital and ecosystem services of soils. Ecol Econ 69:1858–1868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dong H, Li W, Tang W, Zhang D (2009) Early plastic mulching increases stand establishment and lint yield of cotton in saline fields. Field Crops Res 111:269–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dreibrodt S, Wiethold J (2015) Lake Belau and its catchment (northern Germany): a key archive of environmental history in northern Central Europe since the onset of agriculture. The Holocene 25:296–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dreibrodt S, Lubos C, Terhorst B, Damm B, Bork HR (2010) Historical soil erosion by water in Germany: scales and archives, chronology, research perspectives. Quat Int 222:80–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eichner MJ (1990) Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized soils: summary of available data. J Environ Qual 19:272–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ekern PC (1951) Raindrop impact as the force initiating soil erosion. Soil Sci Soc Am J 15:7–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Exner DN, Davidson DG, Ghaffarzadeh M, Cruse RM (1999) Yields and returns from strip intercropping on six Iowa farms. Am J Altern Agric 14:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. FAO (2016) The state of food and agriculture. Climate change, agriculture and food security. United Nations, Rome, Food and Agriculture OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  48. Farayi D (2011) Spatial soil erosion hazard assessment and modelling in Mbire District, Zimbabwe: Implications for catchment management. MSc thesis Submitted to the University of ZimbabweGoogle Scholar
  49. Ferro V (2010) Deducing the USLE mathematical structure by dimensional analysis and self-similarity theory. Biosyst Eng 106:216–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gaynor JD, Findlay WI (1995) Soil and phosphorus loss from conservation and conventional tillage in corn production. J Environ Qual 24:734–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Getahun H, Mulugeta L, Fisseha I, Feyera S (2014) Impacts of land uses changes on soil fertility, carbon and nitrogen stock under smallholder farmers in central highlands of Ethiopia: implication for sustainable agricultural landscape management around Butajira area. NY Sci J J7:700–723Google Scholar
  52. Ghahramani A, Ishikawa Y, Mudd SM (2012) Field experiments constraining the probability distribution of particle travel distances during natural rainstorms on different slope gradients. Earth Surf Process Landf 37:473–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gogoi N, Baruah KK, Meena RS (2018) Grain legumes: impact on soil health and agroecosystem. In: Meena et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer. Scholar
  54. Gonzalez-Hidalgo JC, Batalla RJ, Cerdà A, De Luis M (2010) Contribution of the largest events to suspended sediment transport across the USA. Land Degrad Dev 21:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gonzalez-Hidalgo JC, Batalla RJ, Cerda A, de Luis M (2012) A regional analysis of the effects of largest events on soil erosion. Catena 95:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Griffiths D (2008) Introduction to elementary particles. Wiley, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  57. Guerra P, Kim M, Shah A, Alaee M, Smyth SA (2014) Occurrence and fate of antibiotic, analgesic/anti-inflammatory, and antifungal compounds in five wastewater treatment processes. Sci Total Environ 473:235–243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gupta S (2018) Forests, state and people: a historical account of forest management and control in J&K. In: Contesting conservation. Springer, Cham, pp 121–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Halecki W, Kruk E, Ryczek M (2018) Loss of topsoil and soil erosion by water in agricultural areas: a multi-criteria approach for various land use scenarios in the Western Carpathians using a SWAT model. Land Use Policy 73:363–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Harris J (2009) Soil microbial communities and restoration ecology: facilitators or followers? Science 325(5940):573–574CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Harrold LL, Edwards WM (1974) No-tillage system reduces erosion from continuous corn watersheds. Trans ASAE 17:414–0416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Ambus P, Jensen ES (2001) Temporal and spatial root distribution and competition for nitrogen in pea-barley intercropping – a field study employing 32P methodology. Plant Soil 236:63–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Gooding M, Ambus P, Corre-Hellou G, Crozat Y, Dahlmann C, Dibet A, von Fragstein P, Pristeri A, Monti M, Jensen ES (2009) Pea-barley intercropping for efficient symbiotic N2-fixation soil N acquisition and use of other nutrients in European organic cropping systems. Field Crop Res 113:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Haygarth PM, Ritz K (2009) The future of soils and land use in the UK: soil systems for the provision of land-based ecosystem services. Land Use Policy 26:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Heimsath AM, Dietrich WE, Nishiizumi K, Finkel RC (1997) The soil production function and landscape equilibrium. Nature 388:358–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Heimsath AM, Dietrich WE, Nishiizumi K, Finkel RC (1999) Cosmogenic nuclides, topography, and the spatial variation of soil depth. Geomorphology 27:151–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Heimsath AM, Chappell J, Dietrich WE, Nishiizumi K, Finkel RC (2001a) Late quaternary erosion in southeastern Australia: a field example using cosmogenic nuclides. Quat Int 83:169–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Heimsath AM, Dietrich WE, Nishiizumi K, Finkel RC (2001b) Stochastic processes of soil production and transport: erosion rates, topographic variation and cosmogenic nuclides in the Oregon coast range. Earth Surf Process Landf 26:531–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Heimsath AM, Chappell J, Fifield K (2010) Eroding Australia: rates and processes from Bega Valley to Arnhem Land. In: Bishop P, Pillans B (eds) Australian landscapes. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 346, pp 225–241. Scholar
  70. Holland JM (2004) The environmental consequences of adopting conservation tillage in Europe: reviewing the evidence. Agric Ecosys Environ 103:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Homma K, Horie T, Shiraiwa T, Supapoj N, Matsumoto N, Kabaki N (2003) Topo sequential variation in soil fertility and rice productivity of rainfed lowland paddy fields in mini-watershed (nong) in Northeast Thailand. Plant Prod Sci 6:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hu X, Zhou Q, Luo Y (2010) Occurrence and source analysis of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure, soil, vegetables and groundwater from organic vegetable bases, northern China. Environ Pollut 158:2992–2998CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Huggett R (1998) Soil Chrono sequences, soil development, and soil evolution: a critical review. Catena 32:155–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jahansooz MR, Yunusa IAM, Coventry DR, Palmer AR, Eamus D (2007) Radiation- and water-use associated with growth and yields of wheat and chickpea in sole and mixed crops. Eur J Agron 26:275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jayawardena AW, Rezaur RB (2000) Drop size distribution and kinetic energy load of rainstorms in Hong Kong. Hydrol Process 14:1069–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jenny H (1941) Factors of soil formation: a system of quantitative pedology. Dover, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ji S, Unger PW (2001) Soil water accumulation under different precipitation, potential evaporation, and straw mulch conditions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65:442–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jickells TD, An ZS, Andersen KK, Baker AR, Bergametti G, Brooks N, Kawahata H (2005) Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate. Science 308:67–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Jing K, Wang WZ, Zheng FL (2005) Soil erosion and environment in China. Science Press, Beijing, p 359Google Scholar
  80. Joffe JS (1936) Pedology. Soil Sci 42:313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jordán A, Zavala LM, Gil J (2010) Effects of mulching on soil physical properties and runoff under semi-arid conditions in southern Spain. Catena 81:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Junge B, Abaidoo R, Chikoye D, Alabi T, Stahr K (2006) Monitoring of land use infiltration and linkage to soil erosion in Nigeria and Benin. In: Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, p 41Google Scholar
  83. Kakraliya SK, Singh U, Bohra A, Choudhary KK, Kumar S, Meena RS, Jat ML (2018) Nitrogen and legumes: a meta-analysis. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer. Scholar
  84. Kassam A, Friedrich T, Shaxson F, Pretty J (2009) The spread of conservation agriculture: justification, sustainability and uptake. Int J Agric Sustain 7:292–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kemper WD, Nicks AD, Corey AT (1994) Accumulation of water in soils under gravel and sand mulches. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kinnell PIA (1990) The mechanics of raindrop induced flow transport. Aust J Soil Res 28:497–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kinnell PA (2000) The effect of slope length on sediment concentrations associated with side-slope erosion. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:1004–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kinnell PA (2005) Raindrop-impact-induced erosion processes and prediction: a review. Hydrol Process 19:2815–2844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kinnell PA (2007) Runoff dependent erosivity and slope length factors suitable for modelling annual erosion using the universal soil loss equation. Hydrol Process 21:2681–2689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kinnell PA (2010) Event soil loss, runoff and the universal soil loss equation family of models: a review. J Hydrol 385:384–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kinnell PA, Risse LM (1998) USLE-M: empirical modeling rainfall erosion through runoff and sediment concentration. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62:1667–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kirchlof G, Salako FK (2008) Residual tillage and bush fallow effects on soil properties and maize intercropped with legumes on a tropical alfisol. J Soil Use Manag 16:183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kirkby MJ, Morgan RC (1978) Soil Erosion. Wiley, Chichester/LondonGoogle Scholar
  94. Kornev K, Mukhamadullina G (1994) Mathematical theory of freezing for flow in porous media. Proc R Soc Lond A 447:281–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kottek M, Grieser J, Beck C, Rudolf B, Rubel F (2006) World map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorol Z 15:259–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kumar R, Kumar M, Shah AI, Bhat SA, Wani MA, Ram D (2016) Modelling of soil loss using USLE through remote sensing and geographical information system in micro-watershed of Kashmir valley, India. J Soil Water Conserv 15:40–45Google Scholar
  97. Kumar S, Meena RS, Pandey A, Seema (2017a) Soil acidity management and an economics response of lime and sulfur on sesame in an alley cropping system. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6(3):2566–2573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kumar S, Meena RS, Yadav GS, Pandey A (2017b) Response of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) to Sulphur and lime application under soil acidity. Int J Plant Soil Sci 14(4):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kumar S, Meena RS, Bohra JS (2018a) Interactive effect of sowing dates and nutrient sources on dry matter accumulation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). J Oilseed Brassica 9(1):72–76Google Scholar
  100. Kumar S, Meena RS, Lal R, Yadav GS, Mitran T, Meena BL, Dotaniya ML, EL-Sabagh A (2018b) Role of legumes in soil carbon sequestration. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer. Scholar
  101. Lal R (1976) Soil erosion on Alfisols in Western Nigeria. Geoderma 16(5):377–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lal R (1998) Soil erosion impact on agronomic productivity and environment quality. Crit Rev Plant Sci 17:319–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lal R (2001) Soil degradation by erosion. Land degradation & development. Landscape in Missouri. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:1443–1454Google Scholar
  104. Lal R (2003) Soil erosion and the global carbon budget. Environ Int 29:437–450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Lal R (2004) Carbon sequestration in dryland ecosystems. Environ Manag 33:528–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lal R (2009) Sequestering carbon in soils of arid ecosystems. Land Degrad Dev 20:441–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Larson WE, Lindstrom MJ, Schumacher TE (1997) The role of severe storms in soil erosion: a problem needing consideration. J Soil Water Conserv 52:90–95Google Scholar
  108. Layek J, Das A, Mitran T, Nath C, Meena RS, Singh GS, Shivakumar BG, Kumar S, Lal R (2018) Cereal+legume intercropping: an option for improving productivity. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer. Scholar
  109. Le Bissonnais Y, Singer MJ (1992) Crusting, runoff, and erosion response to soil water content and successive rainfalls. Soil Sci Soc Am J 56:1898–1903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Le Bissonnais Y, Renaux B, Delouche H (1995) Interactions between soil properties and moisture content in crust formation, runoff and interrill erosion from tilled loess soils. Catena 25:33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Legout C, Leguedois S, Le Bissonnais Y (2005) Aggregate breakdown dynamics under rainfall compared with aggregate stability measurements. Eur J Soil Sci 56:225–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lesoing GW, Francis CA (1999) Strip intercropping effects on yield and yield components of corn, grain sorghum, and soybean. Agron J 91:807–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Li XY (2003) Gravel–sand mulch for soil and water conservation in the semiarid loess region of Northwest China. Catena 52:105–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Li J, Okin GS, Alvarez L, Epstein H (2008) Effects of wind erosion on the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients in two desert grassland communities. Biogeochemistry 88:73–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Liu C, Liu Y, Guo K, Fan D, Li G, Zheng Y, Yang R (2011) Effect of drought on pigments, osmotic adjustment and antioxidant enzymes in six woody plant species in karst habitats of southwestern China. Environ Exp Bot 71:174–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Luo XS, Xue Y, Wang YL, Cang L, Xu B, Ding J (2015) Source identification and apportionment of heavy metals in urban soil profiles. Chemosphere 127:152–157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Lutz HJ, Chandler RF Jr (1946) For Soils 57:514–520Google Scholar
  118. Luxmoore RJ, Sharma ML (1980) Runoff responses to soil heterogeneity: experimental and simulation comparisons for two contrasting watersheds. Water Res 16:675–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Maps of India (2018).
  120. Marticorena B, Bergametti G (1995) Modeling the atmospheric dust cycle: 1. Design of a soil-derived dust emission scheme. J Geophys Res Atmos 100:16415–16430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Martinez-Mena M, Castillo V, Albaladejo J (2002) Relations between interrill erosion processes and sediment particle size distribution in a semiarid Mediterranean area of SE of Spain. Geomorphology 45:261–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. McQueeney C, Leininger S (2017) BMP: Himalayan Blackberry (Rubus armeniacus)Google Scholar
  123. McTainsh GH, Lynch AW, Burgess RC (1990) Wind erosion in eastern Australia. Soil Res 28:323–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Meena RS, Lal R (2018) Legumes and sustainable use of soils. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer. Scholar
  125. Meena H, Meena RS (2017) Assessment of sowing environments and bio-regulators as adaptation choice for clusterbean productivity in response to current climatic scenario. Bangladesh J Bot 46(1):241–244Google Scholar
  126. Meena RS, Yadav RS (2014) Phonological performance of groundnut varieties under sowing environments in hyper arid zone of Rajasthan, India. J Appl Nat Sci 6(2):344–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Meena RS, Yadav RS (2015) Yield and profitability of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) as influenced by sowing dates and nutrient levels with different varieties. Legum Res 38(6):791–797Google Scholar
  128. Meena RS, Yadav RS, Meena VS (2014) Response of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties to sowing dates and NP fertilizers under Western dry zone of India. Bangladesh J Bot 43(2):169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Meena RS, Dhakal Y, Bohra JS, Singh SP, Singh MK, Sanodiya P (2015a) Influence of bioinorganic combinations on yield, quality and economics of Mungbean. Am J Exp Agric 8(3):159–166Google Scholar
  130. Meena RS, Meena VS, Meena SK, Verma JP (2015b) The needs of healthy soils for a healthy world. J Clean Prod 102:560–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Meena RS, Meena VS, Meena SK, Verma JP (2015c) Towards the plant stress mitigate the agricultural productivity: a book review. J Clean Prod 102:552–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Meena RS, Yadav RS, Meena H, Kumar S, Meena YK, Singh A (2015d) Towards the current need to enhance legume productivity and soil sustainability worldwide: a book review. J Clean Prod 104:513–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Meena RS, Yadav RS, Reager ML, De N, Meena VS, Verma JP, Verma SK, Kansotia BC (2015e) Temperature use efficiency and yield of groundnut varieties in response to sowing dates and fertility levels in Western dry zone of India. Am J Exp Agric 7(3):170–177Google Scholar
  134. Meena H, Meena RS, Singh B, Kumar S (2016a) Response of bio-regulators to morphology and yield of clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] under different sowing environments. J Appl Nat Sci 8(2):715–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Meena RS, Bohra JS, Singh SP, Meena VS, Verma JP, Verma SK, Shiiag SK (2016b) Towards the prime response of manure to enhance nutrient use efficiency and soil sustainability a current need: a book review. J Clean Prod 112:1258–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Meena RS, Kumar S, Pandey A (2017a) Response of sulfur and lime levels on productivity, nutrient content and uptake of sesame under guava (Psidium guajava L.) based Agri-horti system in an acidic soil of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. J Crop Weed 13(2):222–227Google Scholar
  137. Meena RS, Meena PD, Yadav GS, Yadav SS (2017b) Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, principles and application of microphos technology. J Clean Prod 145:157–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Meena RS, Gogaoi N, Kumar S (2017c) Alarming issues on agricultural crop production and environmental stresses. J Clean Prod 142:3357–3359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Meena H, Meena RS, Lal R, Singh GS, Mitran T, Layek J, Patil SB, Kumar S, Verma T (2018a) Response of sowing dates and bio regulators on yield of clusterbean under current climate in alley cropping system in eastern U.P. Indian Legum Res 41(4):563–571Google Scholar
  140. Meena RS, Kumar V, Yadav GS, Mitran T (2018b) Response and interaction of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soybean rhizosphere: a review. Plant Growth Regul 84:207–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Meena BL, Fagodiya RK, Prajapat K, Dotaniya ML, Kaledhonkar MJ, Sharma PC, Meena RS, Mitran T, Kumar S (2018c) Legume green manuring: an option for soil sustainability. In: Meena et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer. Scholar
  142. Michael AM (1993) Irrigation: theory and practice. Vikas Publishing House, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  143. Mirus BB (2015) Evaluating the importance of characterizing soil structure and horizons in parameterizing a hydrologic process model. Hydrol Process 29:4611–4623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Mitran T, Meena RS, Lal R, Layek J, Kumar S, Datta R (2018) Role of soil phosphorus on legume production. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer. Scholar
  145. Moeyersons J (2003) The topographic thresholds of hillslopes incisions in southwestern Rwanda. Catena 50:381–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Mohamed HH (2015) Cause and effect of soil erosion in Boqol-Jire Hargeisa, Somaliland. PhD thesis, University of Hargeisa, SomaliaGoogle Scholar
  147. Montgomery DR, Brandon MT (2002) Topographic controls on erosion rates in tectonically mountain ranges. Earth Plant Sci Lett 201:481–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Morgan RPC (1980) Soil erosion and conservation in Britain. Prog Phys Geogr 4(1):24–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Morgan RPC, Mugomezulu D (2003) Threshold conditions for initiation of valley side gullies in the middle veld of Swaziland. Catena 50(2–4):401–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Mulaudzi D (2011) A vegetation survey of recently burned communities at the turf loop nature reserve. Doctoral dissertation, University of LimpopoGoogle Scholar
  151. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Murthy DNP, Nguyen DG (1985) Study of two-component systems with failure interactions. Naval Res Logist Quart 32:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Musgrave GW (1947) The quantitative evaluation of factors in water erosion: a first approximation. J Soil Water Conserv 2:133–138Google Scholar
  154. Nadal-Romero E, Regüés D, Latron J (2008) Relationships among rainfall, runoff, and suspended sediment in a small catchment with badlands. Catena 74:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Narro L, Pandey S, De León C, Salazar F, Arias MP (2001) Implications of soil-acidity tolerant maize cultivars to increase production in developing countries. In: Plant nutrient acquisition. Springer, Tokyo, pp 447–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Naudin K, Gozé E, Balarabe O, Giller KE, Scopel E (2010) Impact of no tillage and mulching practices on cotton production in North Cameroon: a multi-locational on-farm assessment. Soil Tillage Res 108:68–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Nearing MA, Bradford JM, Holtz RD (1987) Measurement of waterdrop impact pressures on soil surfaces. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:1302–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. NRCS U (1999) The PLANTS database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LAGoogle Scholar
  159. Obert J, Paramu L, Mafongoya C, Chipo M, Owen M (2016) Seasonal climate prediction and adaptation using indigenous knowledge systems in agriculture systems in southern Africa: a review. J Agric Sci 2:23–27Google Scholar
  160. Pagani A, Mallarino AP (2012) Soil pH and crop grain yield as affected by the source and rate of lime. Soil Sci Soc Am J 76:1877–1886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Paustian K, Lehmann J, Ogle S, Reay D, Robertson GP, Smith P (2016) Climate-smart soils. Nature 532(7597):49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Pidwirny M (2006) Introduction to soils. Fundamentals of physical geography, 2nd edn. Date Viewed.
  163. Pimentel D (2000) Soil erosion and the threat to food security and the environment. Ecosys Health 6:221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Pimentel D, Petrova T, Rley M, Jacquet J, Ng V, Honigman J, Valero E (2006) Conservation of biological diversity in agricultural, forestry, and marine systems. In: Burk AR (ed) Focus on ecology research. Nova Science, New York, pp 151–173Google Scholar
  165. Podwojewski P, Orange D, Jouquet P, Valentin C, Janeau JL, Tran DT (2008) Land-use impacts on surface runoff and soil detachment within agricultural sloping lands in Northern Vietnam. Catena 74:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Poesen J, Nachtergaele J, Verstraeten G, Valentin C (2003) Gully erosion and environmental change: importance and research needs. Catena 50:91–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Potter KN, Torbert HA, Morrison JE Jr (1995) Tillage and residue effects on infiltration and sediment losses on vertisols. Trans ASAE 3:1413–1419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Prasuhn V (2012) On-farm effects of tillage and crops on soil erosion measured over 10 years in Switzerland. Soil Tillage Res 120:137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Puri V (1951) The role of floral anatomy in the solution of morphological problems. Bot Rev 17:471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Quandt A, Kimathi YA (2016) Adapting livelihoods to floods and droughts in arid Kenya: local perspectives and insights. Afr J Rural Dev 1:51–60Google Scholar
  171. Quinton JN, Catt JA (2004) The effects of minimal tillage and contour cultivation on surface runoff, soil loss and crop yield in the long-term Woburn Erosion reference experiment on sandy soil at Woburn, England. Sol Use Manag 20:343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Quinton JN, Govers G, Van Oost K, Bardgett RD (2010) The impact of agricultural soil erosion on biogeochemical cycling. Nat Geo Sci 3:311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Raes D, Kafiriti EM, Wellens J, Deckers J, Maertens A, Mugogo S, Descheemaeker K (2007) Can soil bunds increase the production of rain-fed lowland rice in south eastern Tanzania? Agric Water Manag 89:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Ram K, Meena RS (2014) Evaluation of pearl millet and Mungbean intercropping systems in arid region of Rajasthan (India). Bangladesh J Bot 43(3):367–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Rao BR (1962) A handbook of the geology of Mysore State, Southern India. Bangalore Printing and Publishing Company, BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  176. Ravi S, Breshears DD, Huxman TE, D'Odorico P (2010) Land degradation in drylands: interactions among hydrologic–Aeolian erosion and vegetation dynamics. Geomorphology 116:236–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Ritz K, Young L (2011) The architecture and biology of soils: life in inner space. CABI, WallingfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Robertson GP, Groffman PM (2007) Nitrogen transformations. In: Soil microbiology, Ecol Biochem, 3rd edn, pp 341–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Rochette P, Worth DE, Lemke RL, McConkey BG, Pennock DJ, Wagner-Riddle C, Desjardins RJ (2008) Estimation of N2O emissions from agricultural soils in Canada. I. Development of a country-specific methodology. Can J Sol Sci 88:641–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Roose E (1996) Land husbandry: components and strategy. FAO Soils Bull 70Google Scholar
  181. Roose E, De Noni G (1998) Apport de la recherche à la lutte antiérosive. Etude et Gestion des sols 5:181–194Google Scholar
  182. Safriel UAZ, Niemeijer D, Puigdefabregas J, White R, Lal R, Winsolow M, Ziedler J, Prince S, Archer E, King C, Shapiro B, Wessels K, Nielsen TT, Portnov B, Reshef I, Thornell J, Lachman E, McNab D (2006) Dryland systems. Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 625–656Google Scholar
  183. Schulz H, Dunst G, Glaser B (2013) Positive effects of composted biochar on plant growth and soil fertility. Agronsustain Dev 33:817–827Google Scholar
  184. Shainberg I, Levy GJ, Rengasamy P, Frenkel H (1992) Aggregate stability and seal formation as affected by drops’ impact energy and soil amendments. Soil Sci 154:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Shao Z, Yang W, Cong Y, Dong H, Tong J, Xiong G (2000) Investigation of the permeation behavior and stability of a BaO. 5SrO. 5CoO.8FeO. 2O3− δ oxygen membrane. J Membrane Sci 172:177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Shougang Z, Ruishe Q (2014) The application and study of GIS in soil Erosion model. Adv Sci Eng 6:31–34Google Scholar
  187. Sihag SK, Singh MK, Meena RS, Naga S, Bahadur SR, Gaurav YRS (2015) Influences of spacing on growth and yield potential of dry direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. Ecoscan 9(1–2):517–519Google Scholar
  188. Silva SA, Cook HF (2003) Soil physical conditions and physiological performance of cowpea following organic matter amelioration of sandy substrates. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 34:1039–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Singh P, Kanwar RS (1991) Preferential solute transport through macropores in large undisturbed saturated soil columns. J Environ Qual 20:295–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Snaydon RW, Harris PM (1981) Interactions belowground – the use of nutrients and water. In: Willey RW (ed) Proceeding of the International workshop on intercropping. Hyderabad, India. ICRISAT, Patancheru, India, pp 188–201Google Scholar
  191. Snyder CS, Bruulsema TW, Jensen TL, Fixen PE (2009) Review of greenhouse gas emissions from crop production systems and fertilizer management effects. Agric Ecosys Environ 133:247–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Sofi PA, Baba ZA, Hamid B, Meena RS (2018) Harnessing soil Rhizobacteria for improving drought resilience in legumes. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer. Scholar
  193. Sommer R, Ryan J, Masri S, Singh M, Diekmann J (2011) Effect of shallow tillage, moldboard plowing, straw management and compost addition on soil organic matter and nitrogen in a dryland barley/wheat-vetch rotation. Soil Tillage Res 115:39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Stallings JH (1953) Mechanics of water erosion. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library, Washington, D.C., p 118Google Scholar
  195. State of the Environment 2011 Committee (2011) Australia state of the environment 2011.Biodiversity. Commonwealth of Australia, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  196. Sterk G, Herrmann L, Bationo A (1996) Wind-blown nutrient transport and soil productivity changes in Southwest Niger. Land Degrad Dev 7:325–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Strahm BD, Harrison RB (2008) Controls on the sorption, desorption and mineralization of low-molecular-weight organic acids in variable-charge soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:1653–1664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Strauss P, Klaghofer E (2001) Effects of soil erosion on soil characteristics and productivity. Bodenkultur-wien and munch EN 52:147–154Google Scholar
  199. Strunk H (2003) Soil degradation and overland flow as causes of gully erosion on mountain pastures and in forests. Catena 50:185–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Suresh R (2012) Soil and water conservation engineering. Standard Publishers Distributors, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  201. Tejwani KG, Dhruva Narayana VV (1961) Soil conservation survey and land use capability planning in the ravine lands of Gujarat. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 9:233–244Google Scholar
  202. Tesfaye MA, Bravo F, Ruiz-Peinado R, Pando V, Bravo-Oviedo A (2016) Impact of changes in land use, species and elevation on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in Ethiopian central highlands. Geoderma 261:70–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Torbert HA, Potter KN, Morrison JE (2001) Tillage system, fertilizer nitrogen rate, and timing effect on corn yields in the Texas Blackland Prairie. Agron J 93:1119–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Torsvik V, Øvreås L (2002) Microbial diversity and function in soil: from genes to ecosystems. Curr Opin Microbiol 5:240–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Tsubo M, Walker S, Mukhala E (2001) Comparisons of radiation use efficiency of mono−/inter-cropping systems with different row orientations. Field Crop Res 71:17–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Turbé A, de Toni A, Benito P, Lavelle P, Lavelle P, Ruiz N, van der Putten WH, Labouze E, Mudgal S (2010) Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and tools for policy makers. Bio Intelligence Service, IRD, and NIOO, Report for European Commission (DG Environment)Google Scholar
  207. USDA N (2017) The PLANTS database. National plant data team, GreensboroGoogle Scholar
  208. Valentin C, Poesen J, Li Y (2005) Gully erosion: impacts, factors and control. Catena 63:132–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Van den Putte A, Govers G, Diels J, Gillijns K, Demuzere M (2010) Assessing the effect of soil tillage on crop growth: a meta-regression analysis on European crop yields under conservation agriculture. Eur Jagron 33:231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Van Dijk AIJM, Bruijnzeel LA, Rosewel CJ (2002) Rainfall intensity-kinetic energy relationships: a critical literature appraisal. J Hydrol 261:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Vanacker V, Govers G, Barros S, Poesen J, Deckers J (2003) The effect of short-term socio-economic and demographic change on landuse dynamics and its corresponding geomorphic response with relation to water erosion in a tropical mountainous catchment, Ecuador. Landsc Ecol 18:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Varma D, Meena RS, Kumar S (2017) Response of mungbean to fertility and lime levels under soil acidity in an alley cropping system in Vindhyan region, India. Int J Chem Stud 5(2):384–389Google Scholar
  213. Varma D, Meena RS, Kumar S, Kumar E (2017a) Response of mungbean to NPK and lime under the conditions of Vindhyan region of Uttar Pradesh. Legum Res 40(3):542–545Google Scholar
  214. Venterea RT, Burger M, Spokas KA (2005) Nitrogen oxide and methane emissions under varying tillage and fertilizer management. J Environ Qual 34:1467–1477CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Venterea RT, Maharjan B, Dolan MS (2011) Fertilizer source and tillage effects on yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions in a corn cropping system. J Environ Qual 40:1521–1531CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Venterea RT, Halvorson AD, Kitchen N, Liebig MA, Cavigelli MA, Del Grosso SJ, Stewart CE (2012) Challenges and opportunities for mitigating nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized cropping systems. Front Ecol Environ 10:562–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Verma JP, Jaiswal DK, Meena VS, Meena RS (2015a) Current need of organic farming for enhancing sustainable agriculture. J Clean Prod 102:545–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Verma JP, Meena VS, Kumar A, Meena RS (2015b) Issues and challenges about sustainable agriculture production for management of natural resources to sustain soil fertility and health: a book review. J Clean Prod 107:793–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Verma SK, Singh SB, Prasad SK, Meena RN, Meena RS (2015c) Influence of irrigation regimes and weed management practices on water use and nutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori and Paol.). Bangladesh J Bot 44(3):437–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Vladychenskiy AS (2009) Genesis of soils and factors of the soil formation. In: Glazovsky N, Zaltseva N (eds) Environment structure and function. Earth Sys EOLSS PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  221. Voetberg KS (1970) Erosion on agricultural lands. Agricultural University of Wagenirgen, HolandaGoogle Scholar
  222. Von Uexküll HR, Mutert E (1995) Global extent, development and economic impact of acid soils. Plant Soil 171:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Wang Y, Xie Z, Malhi SS, Vera CL, Zhang Y, Wang J (2009) Effects of rainfall harvesting and mulching technologies on water use efficiency and crop yield in the semi-arid loess plateau, China. Agric Water Manag 96:374–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Webb NP, Chappell A, Strong CL, Marx SK, McTainsh GH (2012) The significance of carbon-enriched dust for global carbon accounting. Glob Change Biol 18:3275–3278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Wilkinson MT, Humphreys GS (2005) Exploring pedogenesis via nuclide-based soil production rates and OSL-based bioturbation rates. Soil Res 43:767–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Willey RW (1979) Intercropping – its importance and research needs. Part 1.Competition and yield advantages. Field Crop Abstr 32:1–10Google Scholar
  227. Wischmeier WH, Smith DD (1978) Predicting rainfall erosion losses. A guide to conservation agricultural handbook, 537. Planning, Science and Educational Administration. USDA, Washington DC, 58 ppGoogle Scholar
  228. Wolters V, Silver WL, Bignell DE, Coleman DC, Lavelle P, Van Der Putten WH, Brussard L (2000) Effects of global changes on above-and belowground biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems: implications for ecosystem functioning: we identify the basic types of interaction between vascular plants and soil biota; describe the sensitivity of each type to changes in species composition; and, within this framework, evaluate the potential consequences of global change drivers on ecosystem processes. AIBS Bull 50:1089–1098Google Scholar
  229. Wu Y, Cheng H (2005) Monitoring of gully erosion on the loess plateau of China using a global positioning system. Catena 63:154–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Wuddivira MN, Stone RJ, Ekwue EI (2009) Clay, organic matter and wetting effects on splash detachment and aggregate breakdown under intense rainfall. Soil Sci Soc Am J 73(1):226–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Yadav GS, Lal R, Meena RS, Babu S, Das A, Bhomik SN, Datta M, Layak J, Saha P (2017a) Conservation tillage and nutrient management effects on productivity and soil carbon sequestration under double cropping of rice in north eastern region of India. Ecol Indic.
  232. Yadav GS, Lal R, Meena RS, Datta M, Babu S, Das LJ, Saha P (2017b) Energy budgeting for designing sustainable and environmentally clean/safer cropping systems for rainfed rice fallow lands in India. J Clean Prod 158:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Yadav GS, Babu S, Meena RS, Debnath C, Saha P, Debbaram C, Datta M (2017c) Effects of godawariphosgold and single supper phosphate on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) productivity, phosphorus uptake, phosphorus use efficiency and economics. Indian J Agric Sci 87(9):1165–1169Google Scholar
  234. Yadav GS, Das A, Lal R, Babu S, Meena RS, Saha P, Singh R, Datta M (2018a) Energy budget and carbon footprint in a no-till and mulch based rice–mustard cropping system. J Clean Prod 191:144–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Yadav GS, Das A, Lal R, Babu S, Meena RS, Patil SB, Saha P, Datta M (2018b) Conservation tillage and mulching effects on the adaptive capacity of direct-seeded upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) to alleviate weed and moisture stresses in the north eastern Himalayan Region of India. Arch Agron Soil Sci. Scholar
  236. Yamanaka T, Inoue M, Kaihotsu I (2004) Effects of gravel mulch on water vapor transfer above and below the soil surface. Agric Water Manag 67:145–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Young FJ, Hammer RD (2000) Soil-landform relationships on a loess-mantled upland landscape in Missouri. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64(4):1443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Zaitseva AA (1970) Control of wind erosion of soils in Russia, lzd. Kolos, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  239. Zhang Y, Kendy E, Qiang Y, Changming L, Anju S, Hongyong S (2004) Effect of soil water deficit on evapotranspiration, crop yield, and water use efficiency in the North China plain. Agric Water Manag 64:107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Zhang A, Cui L, Pan G, Li L, Hussain Q, Zhang X, Crowley D (2010) Effect of biochar amendment on yield and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a rice paddy from Tai Lake plain, China. Agric Ecosys Environ 139:469–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Zhang S, Li P, Yang X, Wang Z, Chen X (2011) Effects of tillage and plastic mulch on soil water, growth and yield of spring-sown maize. Soil Tillage Res 112:92–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Zhao G, Mu X, Wen Z, Wang F, Gao P (2013) Soil erosion, conservation, and eco-environment changes in the loess plateau of China. Land Degrad Dev 24:499–510Google Scholar
  243. Zing RW (1940) Degree and length of land slope as its effects soil loss in runoff. Agric Eng 21:59–64Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shakeel Ahmad Bhat
    • 1
  • Mehraj U. Din Dar
    • 2
  • Ram Swaroop Meena
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, SKUAST KSrinagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Soil and Water EngineeringPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  3. 3.Department of AgronomyInstitute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations