Advertisement

Consequences of Bioinoculants and Intercropping Approach to Alleviate Plant Drought and Salinity Stress for Sustainable Agriculture

  • Jegan Sekar
  • Krishna Saharan
  • Kathiravan Raju
  • Ummed Singh
  • Prabavathy Ramalingam Vaiyapuri
Chapter

Abstract

Saline conditions have created severe negative influence on agricultural productivity and salt accumulation in soil leading to significant yield losses. According to an estimate, approximately 5.2 billion hectares (ha) of agricultural land is subject to soil degradation, erosion, and salinity. The salt-affected soil in India is about 8.1 million ha, with 3.1 million ha coastal saline soil, 2.8 million ha sodic soil, and the remaining 2.2 million ha saline soil located inland. Even though salinity has already significantly affected the fertile lands, the land area under salinity is still increasing due to various anthropogenic activities as artificial irrigation, improper water management, blocking of natural drainage system, and similar human interferences with the environment. In saline-affected soils, the rhizosphere environment becomes unfavorable and inhospitable for growth of plants and microbes, although there may be sufficient amount of water and nutrients in soils. Overuse of artificial fertilizers and chemical pesticides causes long-term degradation of natural soil fertility and creates environmental pollutions. The degradation of soil fertility, in combination with an estimated rise of the world population to 8.5 billion over the next 25 years, calls for additional strategies to ensure the worldwide requirement of food supply. The development of sustainable and safe means for agriculture production will be necessary, which includes enhancing the output on arid and saline areas to avoid further loss of cultivable land. The application of bioinoculants like plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has the potential to enhance plant growth under abiotic stress conditions and to avoid soil degradation at the same time. This kind of plant-microbe interaction is based on biological processes and has the potential to change conventional agricultural practices to a vital and sustainable agriculture. In such a world, microbes take over an important role as an ecological actor to resolve environmental stress problems. Another natural way to enhance plant growth and marginal land use is in planting different species simultaneously at the same space (intercropping), as, e.g., intercropping of legumes and cereals. Highly promising are techniques where plants with different root systems are grown together, which do not compete for the same space in the soil. The different abilities of intercropping plant species to use ephemeral or permanent water sources strongly affect physiological performance and species coexistence in water-limited ecosystems. Therefore, the present chapter highlights the various techniques to counteract crop loss in marginal soil and explore various beneficial biofertilizers and their modes of action in terms of abiotic stress tolerance and reduction to enhance agricultural production in a sustainable way.

Keywords

ACC deaminase Biofertilizer Hydraulic lift Intercropping Salt stress AMF PGPR 

References

  1. Afzal A, Bano A, Fatima M (2010) Higher soybean yield by inoculation with N-fixing and P-solubilizing bacteria. Agron Sustain Dev 30:487–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad P, Abdel Latef AA, Hashem A, Abd Allah EF, Gucel S, Tran L-SP (2016) Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea. Front Plant Sci 7:347PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Ait Barka E, Nowak J, Clement C (2006) Enhancement of chilling resistance of inoculated grapevine plantlets with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:7246–7252PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akhtar MS, Siddiqui ZA (2008) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as potential bioprotectants against plant pathogens. In: Siddiqui ZA, Akhtar MS, Futai K (eds) Mycorrhizae: sustainable agriculture and forestry. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 61–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alami Y, Achouak W, Marol C, Heulin T (2000) Rhizosphere soil aggregation and plant growth promotion of sunflowers by an exopolysaccharide-producing Rhizobium sp. strain isolated from sunflower roots. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:3393–3398PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Babili S, Bouwmeester HJ (2015) Strigolactones, a novel carotenoid-derived plant hormone. Annu Rev Plant Biol 66:161–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Garni SMS (2006) Increasing NaCl-salt tolerance of a halophytic plant Phragmites australis by mycorrhizal symbiosis. Am-Eur J Agric Environ Sci 1:119–126Google Scholar
  8. Alia HH, Chen THH, Murata N (1998) Transformation with a gene for choline oxidase enhances the cold tolerance of Arabidopsis during germination and early growth. Plant Cell Environ 21:232–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aliasgharzad N, Neyshabouri M, Salimi G (2006) Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Bradyrhizobium japonicum on drought stress of soybean. Biologia 61(19):324–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Al-Karaki G, McMichael B, Zak J (2004) Field response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress. Mycorrhiza 14:263–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Allen MF (2007) Mycorrhizal fungi: highways for water and nutrients in arid soils. Vadose Zone J 6:291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Amellal N, Burtin G, Bartoli F, Heulin T (1998) Colonization of wheat roots by an exopolysaccharide-producing pantoea agglomerans strain and its effect on rhizosphere soil aggregation. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:3740–3747PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Apse MP, Aharon GS, Snedden WA, Blumwald E (1999) Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of a Vacuolar Na+/H+ Antiport in Arabidopsis. Science 285:1256–1258Google Scholar
  14. Ashraf M, Foolad M (2007) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot 59:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ashraf M, Hasnain S, Berge O, Mahmood T (2004) Inoculating wheat seedlings with exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria restricts sodium uptake and stimulates plant growth under salt stress. Biol Fertil Soils 40:157–162Google Scholar
  16. Atkinson S, Williams P (2009) Quorum sensing and social networking in the microbial world. J Royal Soc Interf 6:959–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barassi CA, Ayrault G, Creus CM, Sueldo RJ, Sobrero MT (2006) Seed inoculation with Azospirillum mitigates NaCl effects on lettuce. Sci Hortic 109:8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barnawal D, Bharti N, Maji D, Chanotiya CS, Kalra A (2014) ACC deaminase-containing Arthrobacter protophormiae induces NaCl stress tolerance through reduced ACC oxidase activity and ethylene production resulting in improved nodulation and mycorrhization in Pisum sativum. J Plant Physiol 171:884–894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Barnawal D, Pandey SS, Bharti N, Pandey A, Ray T, Singh S, Chanotiya CS, Kalra A (2017) ACC deaminase-containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria protect Papaver somniferum from downy mildew. J Appl Microbiol 122:1286–1298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bassler BL, Losick R (2006) Bacterially speaking. Cell 125:237–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bona E, Cantamessa S, Massa N, Manassero P, Marsano F, Copetta A, Lingua G, D’Agostino G, Gamalero E, Berta G (2017) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting pseudomonads improve yield, quality and nutritional value of tomato: a field study. Mycorrhiza 27:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boyer M, Wisniewski-Dye F (2009) Cell-cell signalling in bacteria: not simply a matter of quorum. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 70:1–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brooker RW, Bennett AE, Cong WF, Daniell TJ, George TS, Hallett PD, Hawes C, Iannetta PP, Jones HG, Karley AJ, Li L, McKenzie BM, Pakeman RJ, Paterson E, Schob C, Shen J, Squire G, Watson CA, Zhang C, Zhang F, Zhang J, White PJ (2015) Improving intercropping: a synthesis of research in agronomy, plant physiology and ecology. New Phytol 206:107–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Burgess SS, Bleby TM (2006) Redistribution of soil water by lateral roots mediated by stem tissues. J Exp Bot 57:3283–3291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen J, Zhang H, Zhang X, Tang M (2017) Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alleviates salt stress in black locust through improved photosynthesis, water status, and K+/Na+ homeostasis. Front Plant Sci 8:1739PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cheng Z, Park E, Glick BR (2007) 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase from Pseudomonas putida UW4 facilitates the growth of canola in the presence of salt. Can J Microbiol 53:912–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Christensen JH, Hewitson B, Busuioc A, Chen A, Gao X, Held I, Jones R, Kolli RK, Kwon WT, Laprise R (2007) Regional climate projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M et al (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, pp 848–940Google Scholar
  28. Cramer GR, Urano K, Delrot S, Pezzotti M, Shinozaki K (2011) Effects of abiotic stress on plants: a systems biology perspective. BMC Plant Biol 11:163PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Csonka LN, Epstein W (1996) Osmoregulation in Escherichia coli and Salmonella. In: Neidhardt FC, Curtis RIII, Ingraham JL, Lin ECC, Low KB, Magasanik B, Reznikoff WS, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger HE (eds) Cellular and molecular biology, vol 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 1210–1223Google Scholar
  30. Dardanelli MS, Fernández de Córdoba FJ, Espuny MR, Rodríguez Carvajal MA, Soria Díaz ME, Gil Serrano AM, Okon Y, Megías M (2008) Effect of Azospirillum brasilense coinoculated with Rhizobium on Phaseolus vulgaris flavonoids and Nod factor production under salt stress. Soil Biol Biochem 40:2713–2721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. del Amor FM, Cuadra-Crespo P (2012) Plant growth-promoting bacteria as a tool to improve salinity tolerance in sweet pepper. Funct Plant Biol 39:82–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dodd IC, Perez-Alfocea F (2012) Microbial amelioration of crop salinity stress. J Exp Bot 63:3415–3428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dourado MN, Bogas AC, Pomini AM, Andreote FD, Quecine MC, Marsaioli AJ, Araújo WL (2013) Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules. Braz J Microbiol 44(4):1331–1339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Egerton-Warburton LM, Querejeta JI, Allen MF (2007) Common mycorrhizal networks provide a potential pathway for the transfer of hydraulically lifted water between plants. J Exp Bot 58:1473–1483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Estrada B, Aroca R, Maathuis FJ, Barea JM, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2013) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native from a Mediterranean saline area enhance maize tolerance to salinity through improved ion homeostasis. Plant Cell Environ 36:1771–1782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Farwick M, Siewe RM, Kramer R (1995) Glycine betaine uptake after hyperosmotic shift in Corynebacterium glutamicum. J Bacteriol 177:4690–4695PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N, Fujita D, Basra SMA (2009) Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agron Sustain Dev 29:185–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Figueiredo MV, Burity HA, Martínez CR, Chanway CP (2008) Alleviation of drought stress in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by co-inoculation with Paenibacillus polymyxa and Rhizobium tropici. Appl Soil Ecol 40:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Foyer CH, Noctor G (2005) Oxidant and antioxidant signalling in plants: a re-evaluation of the concept of oxidative stress in a physiological context. Plant Cell Environ 28:1056–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gamalero E, Berta G, Massa N, Glick BR, Lingua G (2008) Synergistic interactions between the ACC deaminase-producing bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4 and the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea positively affect cucumber plant growth. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 64:459–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gao M, Teplitski M, Robinson JB, Bauer WD (2003) Production of substances by Medicago truncatula that affect bacterial quorum sensing. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 16:827–834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Glick BR (1995) The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Can J Microbiol 41:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Glick BR (2005) Modulation of plant ethylene levels by the bacterial enzyme ACC deaminase. FEMS Microbiol Lett 251:1–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Grover M, Ali SZ, Sandhya V, Rasul A, Venkateswarlu B (2010) Role of microorganisms in adaptation of agriculture crops to abiotic stresses. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 27:1231–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Guhr A, Borken W, Spohn M, Matzner E (2015) Redistribution of soil water by a saprotrophic fungus enhances carbon mineralization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:14647–14651PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Guiñazú LB, Andrés JA, Del Papa MF, Pistorio M, Rosas SB (2009) Response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to single and mixed inoculation with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Biol Fertil Soils 46:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hamaoui B, Abbadi JM, Burdman S, Rashid A, Sarig S, Okon Y (2001) Effects of inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense on chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) and faba beans (Vicia faba) under different growth conditions. Agronomie 21:553–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hamdia ABE, Shaddad MAK, Doaa MM (2004) Mechanisms of salt tolerance and interactive effects of Azospirillum brasilense inoculation on maize cultivars grown under salt stress conditions. Plant Growth Regul 44:165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hartmann A, Rothballer M, Hense BA, Schroder P (2014) Bacterial quorum sensing compounds are important modulators of microbe-plant interactions. Front Plant Sci 5:131PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hasegawa PM (2013) Sodium (Na+) homeostasis and salt tolerance of plants. Environ Exp Bot 92:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu JK, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:463–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Jensen ES (2005) Facilitative root interactions in intercrops. Plant Soil 274:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hayashi H, Alia LM, Deshnium P, Ida M, Murata N (1997) Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana with the codA gene for choline oxidase; accumulation of glycinebetaine and enhanced tolerance to salt and cold stress. Plant J 12(1):133–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Holmstrom KO, Somersalo S, Mandal A, Palva TE, Welin B (2000) Improved tolerance to salinity and low temperature in transgenic tobacco producing glycine betaine. J Exp Bot 51:177–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Huang YM, Zou YN, Wu QS (2017) Alleviation of drought stress by mycorrhizas is related to increased root H2O2 efflux in trifoliate orange. Sci Rep 7:42335Google Scholar
  56. Igiehon NO, Babalola OO (2017) Biofertilizers and sustainable agriculture: exploring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 101:4871–4881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ilangumaran G, Smith DL (2017) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in amelioration of salinity stress: a systems biology perspective. Front Plant Sci 8:1768PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jain A, Singh A, Singh BN, Singh S, Upadhyay RS, Sarma BK, Singh HB (2013) Biotic stress management in agricultural crops using microbial consortium. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: disease management. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 427–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jegan S, Baskaran V, Ganga V, Kathiravan R, Prabavathy VR (2016) Rhizomicrobiome – a biological software to augment soil fertility and plant induced systemic tolerance under abiotic stress. In: Bagyaraj DJ, Jamaluddin (eds) Microbes for plant stress management. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi, pp 25–53Google Scholar
  60. Jha Y, Subramanian R (2013) Paddy plants inoculated with PGPR show better growth physiology and nutrient content under saline condition. Chil J Agri Res 73:213–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kafi M, Khan MA (2008) Crop and forage production using saline waters. Daya Books, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  62. Kamran S, Shahid I, Baig DN, Rizwan M, Malik KA, Mehnaz S (2017) Contribution of zinc solubilizing bacteria in growth promotion and zinc content of wheat. Front Microbiol 8:2593PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kempf B, Bremer E (1998) Uptake and synthesis of compatible solutes as microbial stress responses to high-osmolality environments. Arch Microbiol 170:319–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kohler J, Caravaca F, Carrasco L, Roldán A (2006) Contribution of Pseudomonas mendocina and Glomus intraradices to aggregate stabilization and promotion of biological fertility in rhizosphere soil of lettuce plants under field conditions. Soil Use Manag 22:298–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Krishna G, Singh BK, Kim EK, Morya VK, Ramteke PW (2015) Progress in genetic engineering of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)-a review. Plant Biotechnol J 13:147–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kristensen E, Penha-Lopes G, Delefosse M, Valdemarsen T, Quintana CO, Banta GT (2012) What is bioturbation. The need for a precise definition for fauna in aquatic sciences. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 446:285–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kumari A, Das P, Parida AK, Agarwal PK (2015) Proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics perspectives of salinity tolerance in halophytes. Front Plant Sci 6:537PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Larson C (2013) Climate change. Losing arable land, China faces stark choice: adapt or go hungry. Science 339:644–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lesk C, Rowhani P, Ramankutty N (2016) Influence of extreme weather disasters on global crop production. Nature 529:84–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Li M (2009) Capitalism, climate change and the transition to sustainability: alternative scenarios for the US, China and the world. Dev Chang 40:1039–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Li L, Li SM, Sun JH, Zhou LL, Bao XG, Zhang HG, Zhang FS (2007) Diversity enhances agricultural productivity via rhizosphere phosphorus facilitation on phosphorus-deficient soils. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:11192–11196PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Liste HH, White JC (2008) Plant hydraulic lift of soil water-implications for crop production and land restoration. Plant Soil 313:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mathesius U, Mulders S, Gao M, Teplitski M, Caetano-Anolles G, Rolfe BG, Bauer WD (2003) Extensive and specific responses of a eukaryote to bacterial quorum-sensing signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:1444–1449PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mavrodi DV, Mavrodi OV, Elbourne LDH, Tetu S, Bonsall RF, Parejko J, Yang M, Paulsen IT, Weller DM, Thomashow LS (2018) Long-term irrigation affects the dynamics and activity of the wheat rhizosphere microbiome. Front Plant Sci 9:345PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR (2004) Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 42:565–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Metternicht GI, Zinck JA (2003) Remote sensing of soil salinity: potentials and constraints. Remote Sens Environ 85:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mishra V, Gupta A, Kaur P, Singh S, Singh N, Gehlot P, Singh J (2016) Synergistic effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in bioremediation of iron contaminated soils. Int J Phytoremediation 18:697–703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Moghaieb RE, Tanaka N, Saneoka H, Murooka Y, Ono H, Morikawa H, Nakamura A, Nguyen NT, Suwa R, Fujita K (2006) Characterization of salt tolerance in ectoine-transformed tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabaccum): photosynthesis, osmotic adjustment, and nitrogen partitioning. Plant Cell Environ 29:173–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mundt CC (2002) Use of multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures for disease management. Annu Rev Phytopathol 40:381–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nadeem SM, Zahir ZA, Naveed M, Arshad M (2007) Preliminary investigations on inducing salt tolerance in maize through inoculation with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase activity. Can J Microbiol 53:1141–1149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nakayama H, Yoshida K, Ono H, Murooka Y, Shinmyo A (2000) Ectoine, the compatible solute of Halomonas elongata, confers hyperosmotic tolerance in cultured tobacco cells. Plant Physiol 122:1239–1247PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Naqqash T, Hameed S, Imran A, Hanif MK, Majeed A, van Elsas JD (2016) Differential response of potato toward inoculation with taxonomically diverse plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Front Plant Sci 7:144PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Naseem H, Ahsan M, Shahid MA, Khan N (2018) Exopolysaccharides producing rhizobacteria and their role in plant growth and drought tolerance. J Basic Microbiol 58:1009–1022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Navin P, Pravin P, Kumar TS, Manimurugan C, Sharma RP, Singh PM (2014) Osmopriming of tomato genotypes with polyethylene glycol 6000 induces tolerance to salinity stress. Trends Biosci 7:4412–4417Google Scholar
  85. Niu SQ, Li HR, Paré PW, Aziz M, Wang SM, Shi H, Li J, Han QQ, Guo SQ, Li J (2016) Induced growth promotion and higher salt tolerance in the halophyte grass Puccinellia tenuiflora by beneficial rhizobacteria. Plant Soil 407:217–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Oyewole BO, Olawuyi OJ, Odebode AC, Abiala MA (2017) Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) on drought tolerance and charcoal rot disease of cowpea. Biotechnol Rep 14:8–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Park E-J, Jeknić Z, Chen THH, Murata N (2007) The codA transgene for glycinebetaine synthesis increases the size of flowers and fruits in tomato. Plant Biotechnol J 5(3):422–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pedranzani H, Rodriguez-Rivera M, Gutierrez M, Porcel R, Hause B, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2016) Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulates physiology and performance of Digitaria eriantha plants subjected to abiotic stresses by modulating antioxidant and jasmonate levels. Mycorrhiza 26:141–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Peláez-Vico MA, Bernabéu-Roda L, Kohlen W, Soto MJ, López-Ráez JA (2016) Strigolactones in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis: stimulatory effect on bacterial surface motility and down-regulation of their levels in nodulated plants. Plant Sci 245:119–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Penrose DM, Glick BR (2003) Methods for isolating and characterizing ACC deaminase-containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Physiol Plant 118:10–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Peuke AD, Hartung W, Jeschke WD (1994) The uptake and flow of C, N and ions between roots and shoots in Ricinus communis L. II. Grown with low or high nitrate supply. J Exp Bot 45:733–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Porcel R, Aroca R, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2012) Salinity stress alleviation using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A review. Agron Sustain Devel 32:181–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Porcel R, Aroca R, Azcon R, Ruiz-Lozano JM (2016) Regulation of cation transporter genes by the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in rice plants subjected to salinity suggests improved salt tolerance due to reduced Na(+) root-to-shoot distribution. Mycorrhiza 26:673–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Prieto I, Armas C, Pugnaire FI (2012) Water release through plant roots: new insights into its consequences at the plant and ecosystem level. New Phytol 193:830–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Proust H, Hoffmann B, Xie X, Yoneyama K, Schaefer DG, Yoneyama K, Nogue F, Rameau C (2011) Strigolactones regulate protonema branching and act as a quorum sensing-like signal in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Development 138:1531–1539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Qiao X, Bei S, Li C, Dong Y, Li H, Christie P, Zhang F, Zhang J (2015) Enhancement of faba bean competitive ability by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is highly correlated with dynamic nutrient acquisition by competing wheat. Sci Rep 5:8122PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Qiu L, Wu D, Ali S, Cai S, Dai F, Jin X, Wu F, Zhang G (2011) Evaluation of salinity tolerance and analysis of allelic function of HvHKT1 and HvHKT2 in Tibetan wild barley. Theor Appl Genet 122:695–703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Querejeta JI, Egerton-Warburton LM, Prieto I, Vargas R, Allen MF (2011) Changes in soil hyphal abundance and viability can alter the patterns of hydraulic redistribution by plant roots. Plant Soil 355:63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rabie GH, Aboul-Nasr MB, Al-Humiany A (2005) Increased salinity tolerance of cowpea plants by dual inoculation of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus clarum and a nitrogen-fixer Azospirillum brasilense. Mycobiology 33:51–60PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ramadoss D, Lakkineni VK, Bose P, Ali S, Annapurna K (2013) Mitigation of salt stress in wheat seedlings by halotolerant bacteria isolated from saline habitats. Springerplus 2:6PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rameau C (2010) Strigolactones, a novel class of plant hormone controlling shoot branching. Crit Rev Biol 333:344–349Google Scholar
  102. Rhodes D, Hanson AD (1993) Quaternary ammonium and tertiary Sulfonium compounds in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 44:357–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Roy SJ, Negrao S, Tester M (2014) Salt resistant crop plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 26:115–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ruiz-Sanchez M, Armada E, Munoz Y, Garcia de Salamone IE, Aroca R, Ruiz-Lozano JM, Azcon R (2011) Azospirillum and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization enhance rice growth and physiological traits under well-watered and drought conditions. J Plant Physiol 168:1031–1037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Saharan K, Schütz L, Kahmen A, Wiemken A, Boller T, Mathimaran N (2018) Finger millet growth and nutrient uptake is improved in intercropping with pigeon pea through" biofertilization" and “bioirrigation” mediated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Front Environ Sci 6:46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sandhya V, Sk ZA, Grover M, Reddy G, Venkateswarlu B (2009) Alleviation of drought stress effects in sunflower seedlings by the exopolysaccharides producing Pseudomonas putida strain GAP-P45. Biol Fertil Soils 46:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Saravanakumar D, Samiyappan R (2007) ACC deaminase from Pseudomonas fluorescens mediated saline resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogea) plants. J Appl Microbiol 102:1283–1292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sattar S, Hussnain T, Javid A (2010) Effect of NaCl salinity on cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) grown on MS medium and in hydroponic cultures. J Anim Plant Sci 20:87–89Google Scholar
  109. Saxena B, Shukla K, Giri B (2017) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and tolerance of salt stress in plants. In: Wu QS (ed) Arbuscular mycorrhizas and stress tolerance of plants. Springer, Singapore, pp 67–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schenk ST, Schikora A (2014) AHL-priming functions via oxylipin and salicylic acid. Front Plant Sci 5:784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Schuhegger R, Ihring A, Gantner S, Bahnweg G, Knappe C, Vogg G, Hutzler P, Schmid M, Van Breusegem F, Eberl L, Hartmann A, Langebartels C (2006) Induction of systemic resistance in tomato by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-producing rhizosphere bacteria. Plant Cell Environ 29:909–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sekar J, Raj R, Prabavathy VR (2016) Microbial consortial products for sustainable agriculture: commercialization and regulatory issues in India. In: Singh HB, Sarma BK, Keswani C (eds) Agriculturally important microorganisms. Springer, Singapore, pp 107–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sekar J, Raju K, Duraisamy P, Ramalingam Vaiyapuri P (2018) Potential of finger millet indigenous rhizobacterium Pseudomonas sp. MSSRFD41 in blast disease management-growth promotion and compatibility with the resident rhizomicrobiome. Front Microbiol 9:1029PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Shrivastava P, Kumar R (2015) Soil salinity: a serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi J Biol Sci 22:123–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Simontacchi M, Galatro A, Ramos-Artuso F, Santa-Maria GE (2015) Plant survival in a changing environment: the role of nitric oxide in plant responses to abiotic stress. Front Plant Sci 6:977PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Singh RP, Jha PN (2017) The PGPR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBP-9 augments resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in wheat plants. Front Microbiol 8:1945PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Singh A, Sarma BK, Upadhyay RS, Singh HB (2013) Compatible rhizosphere microbes mediated alleviation of biotic stress in chickpea through enhanced antioxidant and phenylpropanoid activities. Microbiol Res 168:33–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Smol JP (2012) Climate change: a planet in flux. Nature 483:S12–S15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Soliman AS, Shanan NT, Massoud ON, Swelim D (2012) Improving salinity tolerance of Acacia saligna (Labill.) plant by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium inoculation. Afr J Biotechnol 11:1259–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Subramoni S, Gonzalez JF, Johnson A, Pechy-Tarr M, Rochat L, Paulsen I, Loper JE, Keel C, Venturi V (2011) Bacterial subfamily of LuxR regulators that respond to plant compounds. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:4579–4588PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Telford G, Wheeler D, Williams P, Tomkins PT, Appleby P, Sewell H, Stewart GSAB, Bycroft BW, Pritchard DI (1998) The Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecule, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone has immunomodulatory activity. Infect Immun 66:36–42Google Scholar
  122. Thijs S, Weyens N, Sillen W, Gkorezis P, Carleer R, Vangronsveld J (2014) Potential for plant growth promotion by a consortium of stress-tolerant 2,4-dinitrotoluene-degrading bacteria: isolation and characterization of a military soil. Microb Biotechnol 7:294–306PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Timmusk S, Wagner EG (1999) The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa induces changes in Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression: a possible connection between biotic and abiotic stress responses. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 12:951–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Vandermeer JH (1989) Introduction: intercrops and ecology. In: Vandermeer JH (ed) The ecology of intercropping. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Vosátka M, Gryndler M (1999) Treatment with culture fractions from Pseudomonas putida modifies the development of Glomus fistulosum mycorrhiza and the response of potato and maize plants to inoculation. Appl Soil Ecol 11:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wahome PK, Jesch HH, Grittner I (2001) Mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in two rose rootstocks: Rosa chinensis ‘major’ and R. rubiginosa. Sci Hortic 87:207–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Walter J, Nagy L, Hein R, Rascher U, Beierkuhnlein C, Willner E, Jentsch A (2011) Do plants remember drought? Hints towards a drought-memory in grasses. Environ Exp Bot 71:34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wang D, Marschner P, Solaiman Z, Rengel Z (2007) Belowground interactions between intercropped wheat and brassicas in acidic and alkaline soils. Soil Biol Biochem 39:961–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wang CJ, Yang W, Wang C, Gu C, Niu DD, Liu HX, Wang YP, Guo JH (2012) Induction of drought tolerance in cucumber plants by a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium strains. PLoS One 7:e52565PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Widderich N, Hoppner A, Pittelkow M, Heider J, Smits SH, Bremer E (2014) Biochemical properties of ectoine hydroxylases from extremophiles and their wider taxonomic distribution among microorganisms. PLoS One 9:e93809PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wingender J, Neu TR, Flemming H-C (1999) What are bacterial extracellular polymeric substances? In: Wingender J, Neu TR, Flemming HC (eds) Microbial extracellular polymeric substances. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wood JM (2011) Bacterial osmoregulation: a paradigm for the study of cellular homeostasis. Annu Rev Microbiol 65:215–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Worrich A, Stryhanyuk H, Musat N, Konig S, Banitz T, Centler F, Frank K, Thullner M, Harms H, Richnow HH, Miltner A, Kastner M, Wick LY (2017) Mycelium-mediated transfer of water and nutrients stimulates bacterial activity in dry and oligotrophic environments. Nat Commun 8:15472PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Xu Y (2016) Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants. Theor Appl Genet 129:653–673PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Xue Y, Xia H, Christie P, Zhang Z, Li L, Tang C (2016) Crop acquisition of phosphorus, iron and zinc from soil in cereal/legume intercropping systems: a critical review. Ann Bot 117:363–377PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Yaish MW, Kumar PP (2015) Salt tolerance research in date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.), past, present, and future perspectives. Front Plant Sci 6:348PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Yang J, Kloepper JW, Ryu CM (2009) Rhizosphere bacteria help plants tolerate abiotic stress. Trends Plant Sci 14:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Zhang F, Li L (2003) Using competitive and facilitative interactions in intercropping systems enhances crop productivity and nutrient-use efficiency. Plant Soil 248:305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Zhang H, Kim MS, Sun Y, Dowd SE, Shi H, Pare PW (2008) Soil bacteria confer plant salt tolerance by tissue-specific regulation of the sodium transporter HKT1. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 21:737–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Zhu X, Song F, Liu S, Liu T, Zhou X (2012) Arbuscular mycorrhizae improves photosynthesis and water status of Zea mays L. under drought stress. Plant Soil Environ 58:186–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jegan Sekar
    • 1
  • Krishna Saharan
    • 2
  • Kathiravan Raju
    • 3
  • Ummed Singh
    • 2
  • Prabavathy Ramalingam Vaiyapuri
    • 1
  1. 1.Microbiology Lab, M.S. Swaminathan Research FoundationChennaiIndia
  2. 2.College of AgricultureAgriculture UniversityJodhpurIndia
  3. 3.Agri-Biology DivisionT.Stanes company limitedCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations