Advertisement

Use of Plant Hormones for the Improvement of Plant Growth and Production Under Salt Stress

  • Rabia AmirEmail author
  • Faiza Munir
  • Maryam Khan
  • Tooba Iqbal
Chapter

Abstract

Phytohormones are specialized chemical messengers which play significant role in plant defense mechanisms against several abiotic stresses. Plants frequently face biotic or abiotic stresses which restrict their growth and productivity. Salinity, abiotic stress, acquires great significance, affecting plants in various ways, including oxidative burst, ions toxicity, altered metabolism and water stress. This ultimately obstructs the plant to reach its actual genetic potential. Recent investigations have unraveled the functional role of potential phytohormones as mediators between abiotic stress signaling and defense responses. These plant hormones have the capacity to induce numerous defense mechanisms by integrating the stress signals. Subsequently, the downstream responses are regulated in a coordinated manner to produce a robust defense response against salt stress. The present chapter highlights the role of hormones such as abscissic acid, gibberellic acid, cytokinins, brassinosteroids, jasmonates and salicylic acid for improving plant’s tolerance and productivity under saline conditions.

Keywords

Phytohormones Salinity Stress signaling Hormonal cross talk 

References

  1. Abdullah Z, Ahmad R (1990) Effect of pre-and post-kinetin treatments on salt tolerance of different potato cultivars growing on saline soils. J Agron Crop Sci 165:94–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abeles FB, Morgan PW, Saltveit ME Jr (2012) Ethylene in plant biology. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Achard P, Genschik P (2009) Releasing the brakes of plant growth: how GAs shutdown DELLA proteins. J Exp Bot 60:1085–1092PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Achard P, Cheng H, De Grauwe L, Decat J, Schoutteten H, Moritz T, Van Der Straeten D, Peng J, Harberd NP (2006) Integration of plant responses to environmentally activated phytohormonal signals. Science 311:91–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Achard P, Gong F, Cheminant S, Alioua M, Hedden P, Genschik P (2008a) The cold-inducible CBF1 factor–dependent signaling pathway modulates the accumulation of the growth-repressing DELLA proteins via its effect on gibberellin metabolism. Plant Cell 20:2117–2129PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Achard P, Renou J-P, Berthomé R, Harberd NP, Genschik P (2008b) Plant DELLAs restrain growth and promote survival of adversity by reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species. Curr Biol 18:656–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Acosta-Motos JR, Ortuño MF, Bernal-Vicente A, Diaz-Vivancos P, Sanchez-Blanco MJ, Hernandez JA (2017) Plant responses to salt stress: adaptive mechanisms. Agronomy 7:18.  https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy7010018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Afzal I, Basra SMA, Ahmad N, Farooq M (2005) Optimization of hormonal priming techniques for alleviation of salinity stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Caderno Pesq Biol 17:95–109Google Scholar
  9. Agati G, Biricolti S, Guidi L, Ferrini F, Fini A, Tattini M (2011) The biosynthesis of flavonoids is enhanced similarly by UV radiation and root zone salinity in L. vulgare leaves. J Plant Physiol 168:204–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ahmadvand G, Soleimani F, Saadatian B, Pouya M (2012) Effects of seed priming on germination and emergence traits of two soybean cultivars under salinity stress. J Basic Appl Sci Res 3:234–241Google Scholar
  11. Akbari G, Sanavy S, Yousefzadeh S (2007) Effect of auxin and salt stress (NaCl) on seed germination of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Pak J Biol Sci 10:2557–2561PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Akrami M, Arzani A (2018) Physiological alterations due to field salinity stress in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Acta Physiol Plant 40:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Almansouri M, Kinet JM, Lutts S (2001) Effect of salt and osmotic stresses on germination in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Plant Soil 231:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Amjad M, Akhtar J, Anwar-ul-Haq M, Yang A, Akhtar SS, Jacobsen SE (2014a) Integrating role of ethylene and ABA in tomato plants adaptation to salt stress. Sci Hortic 172:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Amjad M, Akhtar J, Haq MAU, Yang A, Akhtar SS, Jacobsen SE (2014b) Integrating role of ethylene and ABA in tomato plants adaptation to salt stress. Sci Hortic 172:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Amzallag G, Lerner H, Poljakoff-Mayber A (1990) Exogenous ABA as a modulator of the response of sorghum to high salinity. J Exp Bot 41:1529–1534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Anuradha S, Rao SSR (2003) Application of brassinosteroids to rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) reduced the impact of salt stress on growth, prevented photosynthetic pigment loss and increased Nitrate reductase activity. Plant Growth Regul 40:29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ashraf MA, Akbar A, Askari SH, Iqbal M, Rasheed R, Hussain I (2018) Recent advances in abiotic stress tolerance of plants through chemical priming: an overview. In: Rakshit A, Singh H (eds) Advances in seed priming. Springer, Singapore, pp 51–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Aydinsakir K, Dinc N, Buyuktas D, Karaguzel UO, Ozkan CF, Vuran FA (2018) Effects of salinity levels and substrates on yield and flower quality of soilless cultivated rose grown in an unheated greenhouse. Fresen Envirno Bull 27:1424–1436Google Scholar
  20. Azooz M (2009) Salt stress mitigation by seed priming with salicylic acid in two faba bean genotypes differing in salt tolerance. Int J Agric Biol 11:343–350Google Scholar
  21. Baatour O, Maha Z, Nada B, Zeineb OA (2018) Effects of NaCl on plant growth and antioxidant activities in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Biosci J 34:683–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bajguz A (2000) Effect of brassinosteroids on nucleic acids and protein content in cultured cells of Chlorella vulgaris. Plant Physiol Biochem 38:209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bao F, Li J (2002) Evidence that the auxin signaling pathway interacts with plant stress response. Acta Bot Sin 44:532–536Google Scholar
  24. Batistič O, Kudla J (2012) Analysis of calcium signaling pathways in plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1820:1283–1293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cabot C, Sibole JV, Barceló J, Poschenrieder C (2009) Abscisic acid decreases leaf Na+ exclusion in salt-treated Phaseolus vulgaris L. J Plant Growth Regul 28:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cao WH, Liu J, Zhou QY, Cao YR, Zheng SF, Du BX, Zhang JS, Chen SY (2006) Expression of tobacco ethylene receptor NTHK1 alters plant responses to salt stress. Plant Cell Environ 29:1210–1219PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Cao WH, Liu J, He XJ, Mu RL, Zhou HL, Chen SY, Zhang JS (2007) Modulation of ethylene responses affects plant salt-stress responses. Plant Physiol 143:707–719PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cao YR, Chen SY, Zhang JS (2008) Ethylene signaling regulates salt stress response: an overview. Plant Signal Behav 3:761–763PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chang H, Jones ML, Banowetz GM, Clark DG (2003) Overproduction of cytokinins in petunia flowers transformed with PSAG12-IPT delays corolla senescence and decreases sensitivity to ethylene. Plant Physiol 132:2174–2183PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chapman EJ, Estelle M (2009) Mechanism of auxin-regulated gene expression in plants. Annu Rev Genet 43:265–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chow B, McCourt P (2004) Hormone signalling from a developmental context. J Exp Bot 55:247–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Colebrook EH, Thomas SG, Phillips AL, Hedden P (2014) The role of gibberellin signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress. J Exp Biol 217:67–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cramer GR, Quarrie SA (2002) Corrigendum to: abscisic acid is correlated with the leaf growth inhibition of four genotypes of maize differing in their response to salinity. Funct Plant Biol 29:535–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Das P, Nutan KK, Singla-Pareek SL, Pareek A (2015) Understanding salinity responses and adopting ‘omics-based’approaches to generate salinity tolerant cultivars of rice. Front Plant Sci 6:712PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Dhaubhadel S, Chaudhary S, Dobinson KF, Krishna P (1999) Treatment with 24-epibrassinolide, a brassinosteroid, increases the basic thermotolerance of Brassica napus and tomato seedlings. Plant Mol Biol 40:333–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Divi UK, Krishna P (2009) Brassinosteroid: a biotechnological target for enhancing crop yield and stress tolerance. Nat Biotechnol 26:131–136Google Scholar
  37. Divi UK, Rahman T, Krishna P (2010) Brassinosteroid-mediated stress tolerance in Arabidopsis shows interactions with abscisic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid pathways. BMC Plant Biol 10:151PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eaton FM (1942) Toxicity and accumulation of chloride and sulfate salts in plants. J Agric Res 64:357–399Google Scholar
  39. El-Tayeb M (2005) Response of barley grains to the interactive e. ect of salinity and salicylic acid. Plant Growth Regul 45:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Esna-Ashari M, Gholami M (2010) The effect of increased chloride (Cl) content in nutrient solution on yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) fruits. J Fruit Ornam Plant Res 18:37–44Google Scholar
  41. Fahad S, Hussain S, Matloob A, Khan FA, Khaliq A, Saud S, Hassan S, Shan D, Khan F, Ullah N (2015) Phytohormones and plant responses to salinity stress: a review. Plant Growth Regul 75:391–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fariduddin Q, Mir BA, Yusuf M, Ahmad A (2013) Comparative roles of brassinosteroids and polyamines in salt stress tolerance. Acta Physiol Plant 35:2037–2053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Farmer EE, Ryan CA (1990) Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:7713–7716PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Finkelstein RR, Gampala SS, Rock CD (2002) Abscisic acid signaling in seeds and seedlings. Plant Cell 14:S15–S45PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Flowers TJ, Colmer TD (2008) Salinity tolerance in halophytes. New Phytol 179:945–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Galvan-Ampudia CS, Testerink C (2011) Salt stress signals shape the plant root. Curr Opin Plant Biol 14:296–302PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Geilfus CM (2018) Review on the significance of chlorine for crop yield and quality. Plant Sci 270:114–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Golldack D, Quigley F, Michalowski CB, Kamasani UR, Bohnert HJ (2003) Salinity stress-tolerant and-sensitive rice (Oryza sativa L.) regulate AKT1-type potassium channel transcripts differently. Plant Mol Biol 51:71–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Golldack D, Li C, Mohan H, Probst N (2013) Gibberellins and abscisic acid signal crosstalk: living and developing under unfavorable conditions. Plant Cell Rep 32:1007–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Golldack D, Li C, Mohan H, Probst N (2014) Tolerance to drought and salt stress in plants: unraveling the signaling networks. Front Plant Sci 5:151PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gunes A, Inal A, Alpaslan M, Eraslan F, Bagci EG, Cicek N (2007) Salicylic acid induced changes on some physiological parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress and mineral nutrition in maize (Zea mays L.) grown under salinity. J Plant Physiol 164:728–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gurmani AR, Bano A, Ullah N, Khan H, Jahangir M, Flowers TJ (2013) Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and silicon (Si) promote salinity tolerance by reducing sodium (Na+) transport and bypass flow in rice (Oryza sativa). Aust J Crop Sci 7:1219–1226Google Scholar
  53. Hadiarto T, Tran LSP (2011) Progress studies of drought responsive genes in rice. Plant Cell Rep 30:297–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hamayun M, Khan SA, Khan AL, Shin JH, Ahmad B, Shin DH, Lee IJ (2010) Exogenous gibberellic acid reprograms soybean to higher growth and salt stress tolerance. J Agric Food Chem 58:7226–7232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Harrison MA (2012) Cross-talk between phytohormone signaling pathways under both optimal and stressful environmental conditions. In: Khan N, Nazar R, Iqbal N, Anjum N (eds) Phytohormones and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 49–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Fujita M (2013) Plant response to salt stress and role of exogenous protectants to mitigate salt-induced damages. In: Ahmad P, Azooz M, Prasad M (eds) Ecophysiology and responses of plants under salt stress. Springer, New York, pp 25–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hayat S, Ahmad A, Mobin M, Hussain A, Fariduddin Q (2000) Photosynthetic rate, growth, and yield of mustard plants sprayed with 28-homobrassinolide. Photosynthetica 38:469–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hayat Q, Hayat S, Irfan M, Ahmad A (2010a) Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: a review. Environ Exp Bot 68:14–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hayat S, Hasan SA, Yusuf M, Hayat Q, Ahmad A (2010b) Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on photosynthesis, fluorescence and antioxidant system in the presence or absence of salinity and temperature in Vigna radiata. Environ Exp Bot 69:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. He T, Cramer GR (1996) Abscisic acid concentrations are correlated with leaf area reductions in two salt-stressed rapid-cycling Brassica species. Plant Soil 179:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. He XJ, Mu RL, Cao WH, Zhang ZG, Zhang JS, Chen SY (2005) AtNAC2, a transcription factor downstream of ethylene and auxin signaling pathways, is involved in salt stress response and lateral root development. Plant J 44:903–916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Horváth E, Szalai G, Janda T (2007) Induction of abiotic stress tolerance by salicylic acid signaling. Plant Growth Regul 26:290–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hussain S, Khaliq A, Matloob A, Wahid MA, Afzal I (2013) Germination and growth response of three wheat cultivars to NaCl salinity. Soil Environ 32:36–43Google Scholar
  64. Hwang I, Sheen J (2001) Two-component circuitry in Arabidopsis cytokinin signal transduction. Nature 413:383–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Iqbal M, Ashraf M (2013) Gibberellic acid mediated induction of salt tolerance in wheat plants: growth, ionic partitioning, photosynthesis, yield and hormonal homeostasis. Environ Exp Bot 86:76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Iqbal M, Ashraf M, Jamil A, Ur-Rehman S (2006) Does seed priming induce changes in the levels of some endogenous plant hormones in hexaploid wheat plants under salt stress. J Integr Plant Biol 48:181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Iqbal N, Nazar R, Khan MIR, Masood A, Khan NA (2011) Role of gibberellins in regulation of source–sink relations under optimal and limiting environmental conditions. Curr Sci 100:998–1007Google Scholar
  68. Iqbal N, Masood A, Khan NA (2012) Phytohormones in salinity tolerance: ethylene and gibberellins cross talk. In: Khan N, Nazar R, Iqbal N, Anjum N (eds) Phytohormones and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 77–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Iqbal N, Umar S, Khan NA, Khan MIR (2014) A new perspective of phytohormones in salinity tolerance: regulation of proline metabolism. Environ Exp Bot 100:34–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. James RA, Blake C, Zwart AB, Hare RA, Rathjen AJ, Munns R (2012) Impact of ancestral wheat sodium exclusion genes Nax1 and Nax2 on grain yield of durum wheat on saline soils. Funct Plant Biol 39:609–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Javid MG, Sorooshzadeh A, Moradi F, Modarres Sanavy SAM, Allahdadi I (2011) The role of phytohormones in alleviating salt stress in crop plants. Aust J Crop Sci 5:726–734Google Scholar
  72. Jayakannan M, Bose J, Babourina O, Rengel Z, Shabala S (2013) Salicylic acid improves salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis by restoring membrane potential and preventing salt-induced K+ loss via a GORK channel. J Exp Bot 64:2255–2268PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jung JH, Park CM (2011) Auxin modulation of salt stress signaling in Arabidopsis seed germination. Plant Signal Behav 6:1198–1200PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kagale S, Divi UK, Krochko JE, Keller WA, Krishna P (2007) Brassinosteroid confers tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus to a range of abiotic stresses. Planta 225:353–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kalaji HM, Bosa K, Kościelniak J, Żuk-Gołaszewska K (2011) Effects of salt stress on photosystem II efficiency and CO2 assimilation of two Syrian barley landraces. Environ Exp Bot 73:64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kang DJ, Seo YJ, Lee JD, Ishii R, Kim K, Shin D, Park S, Jang S, Lee IJ (2005) Jasmonic acid differentially affects growth, ion uptake and abscisic acid concentration in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci 191:273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kaur N, Pati PK (2017) Integrating classical with emerging concepts for better understanding of salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in rice. Front Environ Sci Eng 5:42.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2017.00042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kaya C, Kirnak H, Higgs D, Saltali K (2002) Supplementary calcium enhances plant growth and fruit yield in strawberry cultivars grown at high (NaCl) salinity. Sci Hort 93:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kazan K (2013) Auxin and the integration of environmental signals into plant root development. Ann Bot 112:1655–1665PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kazan K, Manners JM (2012) JAZ repressors and the orchestration of phytohormone crosstalk. Trends Plant Sci 17:22–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Khan MIR, Khan NA (2013) Salicylic acid and jasmonates: approaches in abiotic stress tolerance. J Plant Biochem Physiol 1:e113.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-9029.1000e113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Khan MA, Ungar IA, Showalter AM (2000) Effects of sodium chloride treatments on growth and ion accumulation of the halophyte Haloxylon recurvum. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 31:2763–2774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Khan MN, Siddiqui MH, Mohammad F, Naeem M, Khan MMA (2010) Calcium chloride and gibberellic acid protect linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) from NaCl stress by inducing antioxidative defence system and osmoprotectant accumulation. Acta Physiol Plant 32:121.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-009-0387-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kholghi M, Toorchi M, Bandeh-Hagh A, Shakiba MR (2018) An evaluation of canola genotypes under salinity stress at vegetative stage via morphological and physiological traits. Pak J Bot 50:447–455Google Scholar
  85. Kirkham MB, Gardner W, Gerloff G (1974) Internal water status of kinetin-treated, salt-stressed plants. Plant Physiol 53:241–243PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kosová K, Prášil IT, Vítámvás P (2013) Protein contribution to plant salinity response and tolerance acquisition. Int J Mol Sci 14:6757–6789PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kramell R, Miersch O, Atzorn R, Parthier B, Wasternack C (2000) Octadecanoid-derived alteration of gene expression and the “oxylipin signature” in stressed barley leaves. Implications for different signaling pathways. Plant Physiol 123:177–188PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kudla J, Batistič O, Hashimoto K (2010) Calcium signals: the lead currency of plant information processing. Plant Cell 22:541–563PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kuiper D, Schuit J, Kuiper P (1990) Actual cytokinin concentrations in plant tissue as an indicator for salt resistance in cereals. Plant Soil 123:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kumar IS, Rao SR, Vardhini B (2015) Role of phytohormones during salt stress tolerance in plants. Curr Trends Biotechnol Pharm 9:334–343Google Scholar
  91. Lau S, Jürgens G, De Smet I (2008) The evolving complexity of the auxin pathway. Plant Cell 20:1738–1746PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lefebvre S, Lawson T, Fryer M, Zakhleniuk OV, Lloyd JC, Raines CA (2005) Increased sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase activity in transgenic tobacco plants stimulates photosynthesis and growth from an early stage in development. Plant Physiol 138:451–460PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Liu L, White MJ, MacRae TH (1999) Transcription factors and their genes in higher plants. FEBS J 262:247–257Google Scholar
  94. Liu WY, Wang MM, Huang J, Tang HJ, Lan HX, Zhang HS (2009) The OsDHODH1 gene is involved in salt and drought tolerance in rice. J Integr Plant Biol 51:825–833PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Lopez-Molina L, Mongrand S, McLachlin DT, Chait BT, Chua NH (2002) ABI5 acts down stream of ABI3 to execute an ABA-dependent growth arrest during germination. The Plant J 32:317–328PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Lutts S, Kinet J, Bouharmont J (1995) Changes in plant response to NaCl during development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties differing in salinity resistance. J Exp Bot 46:1843–1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ma T, Zeng W, Li Q, Yang X, Wu J, Huang J (2017) Shoot and root biomass allocation of sunflower varying with soil salinity and nitrogen applications. Agron J 109:2545–2555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mahouachi J (2018) Long-term salt stress influence on vegetative growth and foliar nutrient changes in mango (Mangifera indica L.) seedlings. Sci Hort 234:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Maischak H, Zimmermann MR, Felle HH, Boland W, Mithöfer A (2010) Alamethicin-induced electrical long distance signaling in plants. Plant Signal Behav 5:988–990PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. McConn M, Creelman RA, Bell E, Mullet JE (1997) Jasmonate is essential for insect defense in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:5473–5477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Melgar J, Benlloch M, Fernández-Escobar R (2006) Calcium increases sodium exclusion in olive plants. Sci Hortic 109:303–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mittler R, Vanderauwera S, Suzuki N, Miller G, Tognetti VB, Vandepoele K, Gollery M, Shulaev V, Van Breusegem F (2011) ROS signaling: the new wave. Trends Plant Sci 16:300–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Miyazawa Y, Takahashi A, Kobayashi A, Kaneyasu T, Fujii N, Takahashi H (2009) GNOM-mediated vesicular trafficking plays an essential role in hydrotropism of Arabidopsis roots. Plant Physiol 149:835–840PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Moons A, Prinsen E, Bauw G, Van Montagu M (1997) Antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and jasmonates on salt stress-inducible transcripts in rice roots. Plant Cell 9:2243–2259PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Morgan PW, Drew MC (1997) Ethylene and plant responses to stress. Physiol Plant 100:620–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Muchate NS, Nikalje GC, Rajurkar NS, Suprasanna P, Nikam TD (2016) Plant salt stress: adaptive responses, tolerance mechanism and bioengineering for salt tolerance. Bot Rev 82:371–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Munns R, James RA, Xu B, Athman A, Conn SJ, Jordans C, Byrt CS, Hare RA, Tyerman SD, Tester M (2012) Wheat grain yield on saline soils is improved by an ancestral Na+ transporter gene. Nat Biotechnol 30:360–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mur LA, Mandon J, Persijn S, Cristescu SM, Moshkov IE, Novikova GV, Hall MA, Harren FJ, Hebelstrup KH, Gupta KJ (2013) Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge. AoB Plants 5:pls052.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/pls052CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Mustafa Z, Pervez MA, Ayyub CM, Matloob A, Khaliq A, Hussain S, Ihsan MZ, Butt M (2014) Morpho-physiological characterization of chilli genotypes under NaCl salinity. Plant Soil Environ 33:133–141Google Scholar
  111. Naqvi S, Ansari R, Khanzada A (1982) Response of salt-stressed wheat seedlings to kinetin. Plant Sci Lett 26:279–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Naz T, Akhtar J, Anwar-ul-Haq M, Saqib M, Iqbal MM, Shahid M (2018) Interaction of salinity and boron in wheat affects physiological attributes, growth and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Pak J Agric Sci 55:339–347Google Scholar
  113. Nazar R, Iqbal N, Syeed S, Khan NA (2011) Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under salt stress by enhancing nitrogen and sulfur assimilation and antioxidant metabolism differentially in two mungbean cultivars. J Plant Physiol 168:807–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Nemhauser JL, Hong F, Chory J (2006) Different plant hormones regulate similar processes through largely non-overlapping transcriptional responses. Cell 126:467–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nishiyama R, Watanabe Y, Fujita Y, Le DT, Kojima M, Werner T, Vankova R, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K, Kakimoto T (2011) Analysis of cytokinin mutants and regulation of cytokinin metabolic genes reveals important regulatory roles of cytokinins in drought, salt and abscisic acid responses, and abscisic acid biosynthesis. Plant Cell 23:2169–2183PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Nishiyama R, Le DT, Watanabe Y, Matsui A, Tanaka M, Seki M, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K, Tran LSP (2012) Transcriptome analyses of a salt-tolerant cytokinin-deficient mutant reveal differential regulation of salt stress response by cytokinin deficiency. PLoS One 7:e32124PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Nogués S, Baker NR (2000) Effects of drought on photosynthesis in Mediterranean plants grown under enhanced UV-B radiation. J Exp Bot 51:1309–1317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Ntatsi G, Aliferis KA, Rouphael Y, Napolitano F, Makris K, Kalala G, Katopodis G, Savvas D (2017) Salinity source alters mineral composition and metabolism of Cichorium spinosum. Environ Exp Bot 141:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Panta S, Doyle R, Hardie M, Lane P, Flowers T, Haros G, Shabala S (2018) Can highly saline irrigation water improve sodicity and alkalinity in sodic clayey subsoils. J Soils Sediments 18:3290–3302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Papadopoulos I, Rendig V (1983) Interactive effects of salinity and nitrogen on growth and yield of tomato plants. Plant Soil 73:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Parida AK, Das AB (2005) Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 60:324–349PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Peleg Z, Blumwald E (2011) Hormone balance and abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 14:290–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Peng Z, He S, Gong W, Sun J, Pan Z, Xu F, Lu Y, Du X (2014) Comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes and transcriptional regulation induced by salt stress in two contrasting cotton genotypes. BMC Genomics 15:760.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-760CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Petrussa E, Braidot E, Zancani M, Peresson C, Bertolini A, Patui S, Vianello A (2013) Plant flavonoids-biosynthesis, transport and involvement in stress responses. Int J Mol Sci 14:14950–14973PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Pieterse CM, Leon-Reyes A, Van der Ent S, Van Wees SC (2009) Networking by small-molecule hormones in plant immunity. Nat Chem Biol 5:308–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pinheiro C, Ribeiro I, Reisinger V, Planchon S, Veloso M, Renaut J, Eichacker L, Ricardo C (2018) Salinity effect on germination, seedling growth and cotyledon membrane complexes of a Portuguese salt marsh wild beet ecotype. Theor Exp Plant Physiol 30:113–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Plett DC, Møller IS (2010) Na+ transport in glycophytic plants: what we know and would like to know. Plant Cell Environ 33:612–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Purty RS, Kumar G, Singla-Pareek SL, Pareek A (2008) Towards salinity tolerance in Brassica: an overview. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 14:39–49PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Qiu R, Jing Y, Liu C, Yang Z, Wang Z (2017) Response of hot pepper yield, fruit quality, and fruit ion content to irrigation water salinity and leaching fractions. Hort Sci 52:979–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Raghavendra AS, Gonugunta VK, Christmann A, Grill E (2010) ABA perception and signalling. Trends Plant Sci 15:395–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rahneshan Z, Nasibi F, Moghadam AA (2018) Effects of salinity stress on some growth, physiological, biochemical parameters and nutrients in two pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) rootstocks. J Plant Interact 13:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rajendran K, Tester M, Roy SJ (2009) Quantifying the three main components of salinity tolerance in cereals. Plant Cell Environ 32:237–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rao SSR, Vardhini BV, Sujatha E, Anuradha S (2002) Brassinosteroids–a new class of phytohormones. Curr Sci 82:1239–1245Google Scholar
  134. Rao KP, Richa T, Kumar K, Raghuram B, Sinha AK (2010) In silico analysis reveals 75 members of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase gene family in rice. DNA Res 17:139–153PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Reddy M (1986) Changes in pigment composition. Hill reaction activity and saccharides metabolism in bajra (Penisetum typhoides) leaves under NaCl salinity. Photosynthetica 20:50–55Google Scholar
  136. Reymond P, Bodenhausen N, Van Poecke RM, Krishnamurthy V, Dicke M, Farmer EE (2004) A conserved transcript pattern in response to a specialist and a generalist herbivore. Plant Cell 16:3132–3147PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Roy SJ, Negrão S, Tester M (2014) Salt resistant crop plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 26:115–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ryu H, Cho YG (2015) Plant hormones in salt stress tolerance. J Plant Biol 58:147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Saeng-ngam S, Takpirom W, Buaboocha T, Chadchawan S (2012) The role of the OsCam1-1 salt stress sensor in ABA accumulation and salt tolerance in rice. J Plant Biol 55:198–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sakhabutdinova A, Fatkhutdinova D, Bezrukova M, Shakirova F (2003) Salicylic acid prevents the damaging action of stress factors on wheat plants. Bulgarian J Plant Physiol 21:314–319Google Scholar
  141. Sanchez-Casas P, Klessig DF (1994) A salicylic acid-binding activity and a salicylic acid-inhibitable Catalase activity are present in a variety of plant species. Plant Physiol 106:1675–1679PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sasse JM (1997) Recent progress in brassinosteroid research. Physiol Plant 100:696–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Shahbaz M, Ashraf M (2008) Does exogenous application of 24-epibrassinolide ameliorate salt induced growth inhibition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Growth Regul 55:51–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Shakirova FM, Sakhabutdinova AR, Bezrukova MV, Fatkhutdinova RA, Fatkhutdinova DR (2003) Changes in the hormonal status of wheat seedlings induced by salicylic acid and salinity. Plant Sci 164:317–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sharma I, Ching E, Saini S, Bhardwaj R, Pati PK (2013) Exogenous application of brassinosteroid offers tolerance to salinity by altering stress responses in rice variety Pusa Basmati-1. Plant Physiol Biochem 69:17–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Shi Y-F, Wang D-L, Wang C, Culler AH, Kreiser MA, Suresh J, Cohen JD, Pan J, Baker B, Liu J-Z (2015) Loss of GSNOR1 function leads to compromised auxin signaling and polar auxin transport. Mol Plant 8:1350–1365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2007) Gene networks involved in drought stress response and tolerance. J Exp Bot 58:221–227PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Shu K, Qi Y, Chen F, Meng Y, Luo X, Shuai H, Zhou W, Ding J, Du J, Liu J (2017) Salt stress represses soybean seed germination by negatively regulating GA biosynthesis while positively mediating ABA biosynthesis. Front Plant Sci 8:1372.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01372CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Siddiqui M, Khan M, Mohammad F, Khan M (2008) Role of nitrogen and gibberellin (GA3) in the regulation of enzyme activities and in osmoprotectant accumulation in Brassica juncea L. under salt stress. J Agron Crop Sci 194:214–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Skirycz A, Inzé D (2010) More from less: plant growth under limited water. Curr Opin Biotechnol 21:197–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Srivastava AK, Lokhande VH, Patade VY, Suprasanna P, Sjahril R, D’Souza SF (2010) Comparative evaluation of hydro-, chemo-, and hormonal-priming methods for imparting salt and PEG stress tolerance in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Acta Physiol Plant 32:1135–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Sultana N, Ikeda T, Itoh R (1999) Effect of NaCl salinity on photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation in developing rice grains. Environ Exp Bot 42:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Suzuki N, Koussevitzky S, Mittler R, Miller G (2012) ROS and redox signalling in the response of plants to abiotic stress. Plant Cell Environ 35:259–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Thomma BP, Eggermont K, Tierens KFJ, Broekaert WF (1999) Requirement of functional ethylene-insensitive 2 gene for efficient resistance of Arabidopsis to infection by Botrytis cinerea. Plant Physiol 121:1093–1101PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Todaka D, Nakashima K, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2012) Toward understanding transcriptional regulatory networks in abiotic stress responses and tolerance in rice. Rice 5:6.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1939-8433-5-6CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Tran L-SP, Urao T, Qin F, Maruyama K, Kakimoto T, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2007) Functional analysis of AHK1/ATHK1 and cytokinin receptor histidine kinases in response to abscisic acid, drought, and salt stress in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:20623–20628PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Traw MB, Bergelson J (2003) Interactive effects of jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 133:1367–1375PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Uchida A, Jagendorf AT, Hibino T, Takabe T, Takabe T (2002) Effects of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide on both salt and heat stress tolerance in rice. Plant Sci 163:515–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Van Loon C, Van den Berg W (2003) The effect of chloride fertilization on blackspot susceptibility and other quality characteristics and on yield of potato. Potato Res 46:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Velitchkova M, Fedina I (1998) Response of photosynthesis of Pisum sativum to salt stress as affected by methyl jasmonate. Photosynthetica 35:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wang X (1999) The role of phospholipase D in signaling cascades. Plant Physiol 120:645–652PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wang Y, Liu C, Li K, Sun F, Hu H, Li X, Zhao Y, Han C, Zhang W, Duan Y (2007) Arabidopsis EIN2 modulates stress response through abscisic acid response pathway. Plant Mol Biol 64:633–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wang Y, Wang T, Li K, Li X (2008) Genetic analysis of involvement of ETR1 in plant response to salt and osmotic stress. Plant Growth Regul 54:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wani SH, Kumar V, Shriram V, Sah SK (2016) Phytohormones and their metabolic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Crop J 4:162–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wassmann R, Jagadish S, Heuer S, Ismail A, Redona E, Serraj R, Singh R, Howell G, Pathak H, Sumfleth K (2009) Climate change affecting rice production: the physiological and agronomic basis for possible adaptation strategies. Adv Agron 101:59–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wen FP, Zhang ZH, Bai T, Xu Q, Pan YH (2010) Proteomics reveals the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) on salt-stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) shoots. Plant Sci 178:170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Werner T, Köllmer I, Bartrina I, Holst K, Schmülling T (2006) New insights into the biology of cytokinin degradation. Plant Biol 8:371–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Wi SJ, Jang SJ, Park KY (2010) Inhibition of biphasic ethylene production enhances tolerance to abiotic stress by reducing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in Nicotiana tabacum. Molecules and Cells 30:37–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Wu L, Zhang Z, Zhang H, Wang XC, Huang R (2008) Transcriptional modulation of ethylene response factor protein JERF3 in the oxidative stress response enhances tolerance of tobacco seedlings to salt, drought, and freezing. Plant Physiol 148:1953–1963PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Wu X, He J, Chen J, Yang S, Zha D (2014) Alleviation of exogenous 6-benzyladenine on two genotypes of eggplant (Solanum melongena mill.) growth under salt stress. Protoplasma 251:169–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Xia XJ, Zhou YH, Shi K, Zhou J, Foyer CH, Yu JQ (2015) Interplay between reactive oxygen species and hormones in the control of plant development and stress tolerance. J Exp Bot 66:2839–2856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Xiong L, Schumaker KS, Zhu JK (2002) Cell signaling during cold, drought, and salt stress. Plant Cell 14:S165–S183PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Yadav S, David A, Baluška F, Bhatla SC (2013) Rapid auxin-induced nitric oxide accumulation and subsequent tyrosine nitration of proteins during adventitious root formation in sunflower hypocotyls. Plant Signal Behav 8:e23196PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Yang L, Zu Y-G, Tang Z-H (2013) Ethylene improves Arabidopsis salt tolerance mainly via retaining K+ in shoots and roots rather than decreasing tissue Na+ content. Environ Exp Bot 86:60–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Ye H, Du H, Tang N, Li X, Xiong L (2009) Identification and expression profiling analysis of TIFY family genes involved in stress and phytohormone responses in rice. Plant Mol Biol 71:291–305PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. Yong-Ping G, Bonham-Smith PC, Gusta LV (2002) The role of peroxiredoxin antioxidant and calmodulin in ABA-primed seeds of Brassica napus exposed to abiotic stresses during germination. J Plant Physiol 159:951–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Yu JQ, Huang LF, Hu WH, Zhou YH, Mao WH, Ye SF, Nogués S (2004) A role for brassinosteroids in the regulation of photosynthesis in Cucumis sativus. J Exp Bot 55:1135–1143PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. Zahir Z, Asghar H, Arshad M (2001) Cytokinin and its precursors for improving growth and yield of rice. Soil Biol Biochem 33:405–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Zdunek E, Lips SH (2001) Transport and accumulation rates of abscisic acid and aldehyde oxidase activity in Pisum sativum L. in response to suboptimal growth conditions. J Exp Bot 52:1269–1276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Zhang YY, Liu J, Liu YL (2004) Nitric oxide alleviates growth inhibition of maize seedlings under NaCl stress. Zhi Wu Sheng Li Yu Fen Zi Sheng Wu Xue Xue Bao 30:455–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Zhang S, Hu J, Zhang Y, Xie X, Knapp A (2007) Seed priming with brassinolide improves lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) seed germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under salinity stress. Aust J Agric Res 58:811–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Zhang S, Cai Z, Wang X (2009) The primary signaling outputs of brassinosteroids are regulated by abscisic acid signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:4543–4548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Zhao XC, Schaller GE (2004) Effect of salt and osmotic stress upon expression of the ethylene receptor ETR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. FEBS Lett 562:189–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Zhou HL, Cao WH, Cao YR, Liu J, Hao YJ, Zhang JS, Chen SY (2006) Roles of ethylene receptor NTHK1 domains in plant growth, stress response and protein phosphorylation. FEBS Lett 580:1239–1250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Zhu JK (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:227–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rabia Amir
    • 1
    Email author
  • Faiza Munir
    • 1
  • Maryam Khan
    • 1
  • Tooba Iqbal
  1. 1.Department of Plant Biotechnology, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied BiosciencesNational University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)IslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations