Seed Priming Alleviates Stress Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  • R. K. Sarkar
  • A. K. Mukherjee
  • K. Chakraborty


Seed priming is an age-old practice in agriculture. Seed germination and seedling growth can be improved through seed priming (seed hydration–dehydration–rehydration techniques) and seed coating with different living and nonliving substances. Seed priming is an age-old practice in agriculture dates to 1926 showed that rapid germination and seedling growth due to chlorine water priming. Seed priming break ups the seed cover, decreases inhibitor concentration in hull and endosperm and transforms the seeds into a higher state of activation. Both germination rate and seedling growth turn out to be fast and superior in primed seeds compared to non-primed seeds, while capsulated seed gets some essential ingredients required for fast and uniform germination from the coating substances. It is observed that different priming agents improve tolerance to excess and deficit water, salinity, metal toxicity and temperature and different biotic stresses in rice. Reports show that capsulated seeds with appropriate pelleting agents induce tolerance to abiotic stresses such as germination stage oxygen deficiency, cold, drought and salinity. Seed treatments have greater impact to stabilize rice yields under adverse conditions. In this chapter, physiological and biochemical status of primed seeds are discussed in relation to tolerance to diverse abiotic stresses in rice.


Abiotic stresses Rice Seed invigoration Tolerance Yield 



abscisic acid


5-aminolevulinic acid






calcium chloride






chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer




deoxyribonucleic acid




gibberellic acid


glutathione peroxidase


germination stage oxygen deficiency


hydrogen peroxide


heat shock protein 70


indole-3-acetic acid


potassium chloride


potassium nitrate


late embryogenesis abundant






messenger RNA








polyethylene glycol


ribonucleic acid


reactive oxygen species


respiratory quotient


salicylic acid




superoxide dismutase









Authors are grateful to the Indian Council of Agriculture, India, for providing financial support through Emeritus Scientist Scheme to RKS.


  1. Abichandani CT, Ramiah K (1951) Treatment of rice seed in nutrient solution as means of increasing yield. Curr Sci 20:270–271Google Scholar
  2. Afzal I, Butt A, Rehman HU, Basra AMA, Afzal A (2012) Alleviation of salt stress in fine aromatic rice by seed priming. Aust J Crop Sci 6:1401–1407Google Scholar
  3. Bai B, Shi B, Hou N, Cao Y, Meng Y, Bian H, Zhu M, Han N (2017) microRNAs participate in gene expression regulation and phytohormone cross-talk in barley embryo during seed development and germination. BMC Plant Biol 17:150. Scholar
  4. Bailey-Serres J, Voesenek LACJ (2008) Flooding stress: acclimations and genetic diversity. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:313–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Basra SMA, Farooq M, Wahid A, Khan MB (2006) Rice seed invigoration by hormonal and vitamin priming. Seed Sci Technol 34:753–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Basu RN, Pal P (1980) Control of rice seed deterioration by hydration-dehydration pretreatments. Seed Sci Technol 8:151–160Google Scholar
  7. Basu RN, Chattopadhyay K, Pal P (1974) Maintenance of seed viability in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and jute (Corchorus capsularis L. and C. olitorius L.). Indian Agric 18:75–79Google Scholar
  8. Bewley JD (1997) Seed germination and dormancy. Plant Cell 9:1055–1066PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bewley JD, Nonogaki H (2017) Seed maturation and germination. In: Reference module in life sciences, Elsevier. isbn:9780128096338. Scholar
  10. Binang WB, Shiyam JO, Ntia JD (2012) Effect of seed priming method on agronomic performances and cost effectiveness of rainfed dry-seeded Nerica rice. Res J Seed Sci 5:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradford KJ (1995) Water relations in seed germination. In: Kigel J, Galili G (eds) Seed development and germination. Arcel Dekker, New York, pp 351–396Google Scholar
  12. Brown PR, Tuan VV, Nhan DK, Dung LC, Ward J (2018) Influence of livelihoods on climate change adaptation for smallholder farmers in the Mekong delta Vietnam. Int J Agric Sustain 16:255–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruce TJA, Matthes MC, Napier J, Pickett JA (2007) Stressful “memories” of plants: evidence and possible mechanisms. Plant Sci 173:603–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Castañeda LMF, Genro C, Roggia I, Bender SS, Bender RJ, Pereira CN (2014) Innovative rice seed coating (Oryza sativa) with polymer nanofibres and microparticles using the electrospinning method. J Res Updat Polym Sci 3:33–39Google Scholar
  15. Cheng J, Wang L, Zeng P, He Y, Zhou R, Zhang H, Wang Z (2017) Identification of genes involved in rice seed priming in the early imbibition stage. Plant Biol 19:61–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chunthaburee S, Sanitchon J, Pattanagul W, Theerakulpisut P (2014) Alleviation of salt stress in seedlings of black glutinous rice by seed priming with spermidine and gibberellic acid. Not Bot Horti Agrobot 42:405–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Das KK, Panda D, Nagaraju M, Sharma SG, Sarkar RK (2004) Antioxidant enzymes and aldehyde releasing capacity of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) as determinants of anaerobic seedling establishment capacity. Bulg J Plant Physiol 30:34–44Google Scholar
  18. Das SS, Karmakar P, Nandi AK, Mishra NS (2015) Small RNA mediated regulation of seed germination. Front Plant Sci 6:828. Scholar
  19. David BV (2008) Biotechnological approaches in IPM and their impact on environment. J Biopest 1:1–5Google Scholar
  20. de Barros AF, Pimentel LD, Araujo EF, de Macedo LR, Martinez HEP, Batista VAP, da Paixão MQ (2017) Super absorbent polymer application in seeds and planting furrow: it will be a new opportunity for rainfed agriculture. Semina Ciên Agrár Londrina 38:1703–1714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de Guzman LEP, Aquino AL (eds) (2007) Longevity of hydro-primed rice seeds, Philipp J Crop Sci 32:77–88Google Scholar
  22. Dirk LMA, Griffen LA, Downie B, Bewley JD (1995) Multiple isozymes of endo-β-d-mannanase in dry and imbibed seeds. Phytochemistry 40:1045–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ella ES, Dionisio-Sese ML, Ismail AM (2011) Seed pre-treatment in rice reduces damage, enhances carbohydrate mobilization and improves emergence and seedling establishment under flooded conditions. AoB Plants 2011:plr007. Scholar
  24. Fan Y, Zhu T, Li M, He J, Huang R (2017) Heavy metal contamination in soil and brown rice and human health risk assessment near three mining areas in Central China. J Healthcare Eng 2017:4124302. Scholar
  25. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Afzal I, Khaliq A (2006a) Optimization of hydropriming techniques for rice seed invigoration. Seed Sci Technol 34:507–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Tabassum R, Afzal I (2006b) Enhancing the performance of direct seeded fine rice by seed priming. Plant Prod Sci 9:446–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Khan MB (2007) Seed priming improves growth of nursery seedlings and yield of transplanted rice. Arch Agron Soil Sci 53:315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fenangad DB, Orge RF (2015) Simple seed coating technology for improved seedling establishment in direct-seeded rice. OIDA Int J Sustain Dev 8:35–42Google Scholar
  29. Finch-Savage WE, Leubner-Metzger G (2006) Seed dormancy and the control of germination. New Phytol 171:501–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Finkelstein R, Gibson SI (2002) ABA and sugar interactions regulating development: “cross-talk” or “voices in a crowd”? Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:26–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ghodrat V, Moradshahi A, Rousta MJ, Karampour A (2013) Improving yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by indolebutyric acid (IBA), gibberellic acid (GA3) and salicylic acid (SA) pre-sowing seed treatments. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 13:872–876Google Scholar
  32. Goswami A, Banerjee R, Raha S (2013) Drought resistance in rice seedlings conferred by seed priming. Protoplasma 250:1115–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hagiwara M, Imura M, Mitsuishi S (1987) Oxidation-reduction state in the vicinity of the paddy rice seed sown into flooded soil. Jpn J Crop Sci 56:356–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hara Y (2017) Comparison of the effects of seed coating with tungsten and molybdenum compounds on seedling establishment rates of rice, wheat, barley, and soybean under flooded conditions. Plant Prod Sci 20:406–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harris D, Joshi A, Khan PA, Gothkar P, Sodhi PS (1999) On-farm seed priming in semi-arid agriculture: development and evaluation in maize, rice and chickpea in India using participatory methods. Exp Agric 35:15–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harris D, Pathan AK, Gothkar P, Joshi A, Chivasa W, Nyamudeza P (2001) On-farm seed priming: using participatory methods to revive and refine a key technology. Agric Syst 69:151–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hayashi M (1987) Relationship between endogenous germination inhibitors and dormancy in rice seeds. Jpn Agric Res Quart 21:153–161Google Scholar
  38. He D, Yang P (2013) Proteomics of rice seed germination. Front Plant Sci 4:246. Scholar
  39. High-qing Z, Ying-bin Z, Guo-chao X, Yuan-fu X (2007) Effect and mechanism of cold tolerant seed-coating agents on the cold tolerance of early indica rice seedlings. Agric Sci China 6:792–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hilhorst HWM, Toorop PE (1997) Review on dormancy, germinability, and germination in crop and weed seeds. Adv Agron 61:111–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hussain M, Farooq M, Lee D-J (2016a) Evaluating the role of seed priming in improving drought tolerance of pigmented and non-pigmented rice. J Agro Crop Sci 203:269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hussain S, Yin H, Peng S, Khan FA, Khan F, Sameeullah M, Hussain HA, Huang J, Cui K, Nie L (2016b) Comparative transcriptional profiling of primed and non-primed rice seedlings under submergence stress. Front Plant Sci 7:1125. Scholar
  43. Hussain S, Khan FA, Hussain HA, Nie L (2016c) Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of seed priming-induced chilling tolerance in tice cultivars. Front Plant Sci 7:116. Scholar
  44. Illangakoon TK, Ella ES, Ismail AM, Marambe B, Keerthisena RSK, Bentota AP, Kulatunge S (2016) Impact of variety and seed priming on anaerobic germination-tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Sri Lanka. Trop Agric Res 28:26–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnson SE, Lauren JG, Welch RM, Duxbury JM (2005) A comparison of the effects of micronutrient seed priming and soil fertilization on the mineral nutrition of chickpea (Cicer arietinum), lentil (Lens culinaris), rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Nepal. Exp Agric 41:427–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kalita J, Pradhan AK, Shandilya ZM, Tanti B (2018) Arsenic stress responses and tolerance in rice: physiological, cellular and molecular approaches. Rice Sci 25:235–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Khush GS (2005) What it will take to feed 5.0 billion rice consumers in 2030. Plant Mol Biol 59:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kumar V, Ladha JK (2011) Direct seeding of rice: recent developments and future research needs. Adv Agron 111:297–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li X, Zhang L (2012) SA and PEG-induced priming for water stress tolerance in rice seedling. In: Zhu E, Sambath S (eds) Information technology and agricultural engineering, vol 134. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 881–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mahajan G, Sarlach RS, Japinder S, Gill MS (2011) Seed priming effects on germination, growth and yield of dry direct-seeded rice. J Crop Improv 25:409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Matsushima K-I, Sakagami J-I (2013) Effects of seed hydropriming on germination and seedling vigor during emergence of rice under different soil moisture conditions. Am J Plant Sci 4:1584–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mei J, Wang W, Peng S, Nie L (2017) Seed pelleting with calcium peroxide improves crop establishment of direct-seeded rice under waterlogging conditions. Sci Rep 7:4878. Scholar
  53. Mikkelsen DS, Sinah MN (1961) Germination inhibition in Oryza sativa and control by preplanting soaking treatments. Crop Sci 1:332–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mishra G, Patnaik SN (1959) Effect of coumarin on the germination and growth of rice seedlings. Nature 183:989–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mondo VHV, Nascente AS, Neves PDCF, Taillebois JE, Oliveira FHS (2016) Seed hydropriming in upland rice improves germination and seed vigor and has no effects on crop cycle and grain yield. Aust J Crop Sci 10:1534–1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moulick D, Ghosh D, Santra SC (2016) Evaluation of effectiveness of seed priming with selenium in rice during germination under arsenic stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 109:571–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moulick D, Santra SC, Ghosh D (2018) Rice seed priming with Se: a novel approach to mitigate as induced adverse consequences on growth, yield and as load in brown rice. J Hazard Mater 355:187–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Narsai R, Gouil Q, Secco D, Srivastava A, Karpievitch YV, Liew LC, Lister R, Mathew G, Lewsey MG, Whelan J (2017) Extensive transcriptomic and epigenomic remodelling occurs during Arabidopsis thaliana germination. Genom Biol 18:172. Scholar
  60. Ota Y, Nakayama M (1970) Effect of seed coating with calcium peroxide on germination under submerged condition in rice plant. Proc Crop Sci Soc Jpn 39:535–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Palupi T, Ilyas SAS, Machmud M, Widajati E (2017) Effect of seed coating with biological agents on seed quality of rice. Biodiversitas 18:727–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Panda D, Rao DN, Das KK, Sarkar RK (2017) Role of starch hydrolytic enzymes and phosphatases in relation to under water seedling establishment in rice. Indian J Plant Physiol 22:279–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Parija P (1943) On the seed treatment and phasic development. Curr Sci 12:88–89Google Scholar
  64. Pereira A (2016) Plant abiotic stress challenges from the changing environment. Front Plant Sci 7:1123. Scholar
  65. Pouramir-Dashtmian F, Khajeh-Hosseini M, Esfahani M (2014) Improving chilling tolerance of rice seedling by seed priming with salicylic acid. Arch Agron Crop Sci 60:1291–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Radanielson AM, Gaydon DS, Li T, Angeles O, Roth CH (2018) Modeling salinity effect on rice growth and grain yield with ORYZA v3 and APSIM-Oryza. Eur J Agron 100:44–55. Scholar
  67. Rajjou L, Debeaujon I (2008) Seed longevity: survival and maintenance of high germination ability of dry seeds. C R Biol 331:796–805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rang ZW, Jagadish SVK, Zhou QM, Craufurd PQ, Heuer S (2011) Effect of high temperature and water stress on pollen germination and spikelet fertility in rice. Environ Exp Bot 70:58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rawat L, Singh Y, Shukla N, Kumar J (2012) Seed biopriming with salinity tolerant isolates of Trichoderma harzianum alleviates salt stress in rice: growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics. J Plant Pathol 94:353–365Google Scholar
  70. Ray S, Vijayan J, Sarkar RK (2016) Germination stage oxygen deficiency (GSOD): an emerging stress in the era of changing trends in climate and rice cultivation practice. Front Plant Sci 7:671. Scholar
  71. Reddy JN, Sarkar RK, Patnaik SSC, Singh DP, Singh US, Ismail AM, Mackill DJ (2009) Improvement of rice germplasm for rainfed lowland of eastern India. SABRAO J Breed Genet 41(Special supplement). ISSN:102907073Google Scholar
  72. Rehman HU, Basra SMA, Farooq M (2011) Field appraisal of seed priming to improve the growth, yield, and quality of direct seeded rice. Turk J Agric 35:357–365Google Scholar
  73. Rehman HU, Kamran M, Basra SMA, Afzal I, Farooq M (2015) Influence of seed priming on performance and water productivity of direct seeded rice in alternating wetting and drying. Rice Sci 22:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Roberts GH (1961) Dormancy in rice seeds 1. The distribution of dormancy period. J Exp Bot 12:315–329Google Scholar
  75. Rodriguez-Valentin R, Campos F, Battaglia M, Solórzano RM, Rosales MA, Covarrubias AA (2014) Group 6 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins in monocotyledonous plants: genomic organization and transcript accumulation patterns in response to stress in Oryza sativa. Plant Mol Biol Rep 32:198–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rosa C, Bell RW, White PF (2000) Phosphorus seed coating and soaking for improving seedling growth of Oryza sativa (rice) cv. IR66. Seed Sci Technol 28:201–211Google Scholar
  77. Roy C, Guha I (2017) Economics of climate change in the Indian Sundarbans. Glob Bus Rev 18:493–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Roychoudhury A, Basu S, Sengupta DN (2011) Amelioration of salinity stress by exogenously applied spermidine or spermine in three varieties of Indica rice differing in their level of salt tolerance. J Plant Physiol 168:317–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Salah SM, Yajing G, Dongdong C, Jie L, Aamir N, Qijuan H, Weimin H, Mingyu N, Jin H (2015) Seed priming with polyethylene glycol regulating the physiological and molecular mechanism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under nano-ZnO stress. Sci Rep 5:14278. Scholar
  80. Sarkar RK (2012) Seed priming improves agronomic trait performance under flooding and non-flooding conditions in rice with QTL SUB1. Rice Sci 19:286–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sarkar RK, Das S (2003) Yield of rainfed lowland rice with medium water depth under anaerobic direct seeding and transplanting. Trop Sci 43:192–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sarkar RK, Bera SK, De RN (1999) Rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars for anaerobic seeding. Indian J Agric Sci 69:73–76Google Scholar
  83. Sarkar RK, Reddy JN, Sharma SG, Ismail AM (2006) Physiological basis of submergence tolerance in rice and implications for crop improvement. Curr Sci 91:899–906Google Scholar
  84. Sarkar RK, Mahata KR, Singh DP (2013) Differential responses of antioxidant system and photosynthetic characteristics in four rice cultivars differing in sensitivity to sodium chloride stress. Acta Physiol Plant 35:2915–2926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sarkar RK, Chakraborty K, Chattopadhyay K, Ray S, Panda D, Ismail AM (2018) Response of rice to individual and combined stresses of flooding and salinity. In: Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M, Biswas JK, Nahar K (eds) Advances in rice research for abiotic stress tolerance. Elsevier. Scholar
  86. Sasaki K, Kishitani S, Fumitaka Abe F, Sato T (2015) Promotion of seedling growth of seeds of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Hitomebore) by treatment with H2O2 before sowing. Plant Prod Sci 8:509–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Seck PA, Diagne A, Mohanty S, Wopereis MC (2012) Crops that feed the world 7: Rice. Food Sec 4:7–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sheteiwy M, Shena H, Xua J, Guana Y, Songa W, Hu J (2017) Seed polyamines metabolism induced by seed priming with spermidine and 5-aminolevulinic acid for chilling tolerance improvement in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 137:58–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shinwari KI, Jan M, Shah G, Khattak SR, Urehman S, Daud MK, Naeem R, Jamil M (2015) Seed priming with salicylic acid induces tolerance against chromium (VI) toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Pak J Bot 47:161–170Google Scholar
  90. Shiratsuchi H, Ohdaira Y, Yamaguchi H, Fukuda A (2017) Breaking the dormancy of rice seeds with various dormancy levels using steam and high temperature treatments in a steam nursery cabinet. Plant Prod Sci 20:183–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Singh DP, Sarkar RK (2014) Distinction and characterization of salinity tolerant and sensitive rice cultivars as probed by the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth parameters. Funct Plant Biol 41:727–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Singh A, Gupta R, Pandey R (2016) Rice seed priming with picomolar rutin enhances rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM colonization and plant growth. PLoS One 11:e0146013. Scholar
  93. Sircar SM, Das TM, Lahiri AN (1955) Germination of rice embryo under water and its relation of growth to endosperm fractions. Nature 175:1046–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Slaton NA, Wilson JCE, Ntamatungiro S, Norman RJ, Boothe DL (2001) Evaluation of zinc seed treatments for rice. Agron J 93:152–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smith A, Snapp S, Chikowo R, Thorne P, Bekunda M, Glover J (2017) Measuring sustainable intensification in smallholder agroecosystems: a review. Glob Food Sec 12:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Songlin R, Qingzhong X, Bao ZWX (2002) Effects of chitosan coating on seed germination and salt-tolerance of seedling in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Eur PMC 28:803–808Google Scholar
  97. Steinbrecher T, Leubner-Metzger G (2018) Tissue and cellular mechanics of seeds. Curr Opin Genet Dev 51:1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Takahashi N, Kato T, Tsunagawa M, Sasaki N, Kitahara Y (1976) Mechanisms of dormancy in rice seeds. II. New growth inhibitors, momilactone –A and –B isolated from the hulls of rice seeds. Jpn J Breed 26:91–9198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tavares LC, Rufino CDA, Dörr CS, Barros ACSA, Peske ST (2012) Performance of lowland rice seeds coated with dolomitic limestone and aluminum silicate. Revista Brasileira de Sementes 34:202–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Thobunluepop P, Pawelzik E, Vearasilp S (2008) The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao DAWK Mali 105 storability I: the case study of physiological properties. Pak J Biol Sci 11:2291–2299PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Tilebeni HG, Yousefpour H, Farhadi R, Golpayegani A (2012) Germination behavior of rice (Oriza Sativa L.) cultivars seeds to difference temperatures. Adv Environ Biol 6:573–577Google Scholar
  102. Tonel FR, Marini P, Bandeira JDM, Silva ACSD, Sampaio NV, Villela FA (2013) Osmotic priming of rice seeds subjected to low temperatures. J Seed Sci 35:231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Toole EH, Hendricks SB, Borthwick HA, TOOLE VK (1956) Physiology of seed germination. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 7:299–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Uneo K, Miyoshi K (2005) Difference of optimum germination temperature of seeds of intact and dehusked japonica rice during seed development. Euphytica 143:271–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Varier A, Vari AK, Dadlani M (2010) The subcellular basis of seed priming. Curr Sci 99:450–456Google Scholar
  106. Vijayan J, Senapati S, Ray S, Chakraborty K, Molla KA, Basak N, Pradhan B, Yeasmin L, Chattopadhyay K, Sarkar RK (2018) Transcriptomic and physiological studies identify cues for germination stage oxygen deficiency tolerance in rice. Environ Exp Bot 147:234–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Waheed A, Ahmad H, Abbasi FM (2012) Different treatment of rice seed dormancy breaking, germination of both wild species and cultivated varieties (Oryza sativa L.). J. Mater Environ Sci 3:551–560Google Scholar
  108. Wang A, Wang X, Ren Y, Gong X, Bewley JD (2005) Endo-β-mannanase and β-mannosidase activities in rice grains during and following germination, and the influence of gibberellin and abscisic acid. Seed Sci Res 15:219–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wang W, Chen Q, Hussain S, Mei J, Dong H, Peng S, Huang J, Cui K, Nie L (2016) Pre-sowing seed treatments in direct-seeded early rice: consequences for emergence, seedling growth and associated metabolic events under chilling stress. Sci Rep 6:19637. Scholar
  110. Wang W, He A, Peng S, Huang J, Cui K, Nie L (2018) The effect of storage condition and duration on the deterioration of primed rice seeds. Front Plant Sci 9:172. Scholar
  111. Welbaum GE, Bradford KJ, Yim K-O, Booth DT, Oluoch MO (1998) Biophysical, physiological and biochemical processes regulating seed germination. Seed Sci Res 8:161–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Yamada N (1952) Calcium peroxide as an oxygen supplier for crop plants. (in Japanese, with English summary). Proc Crop Sci Soc Jpn 21:65–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yamauchi M (2017) A review of iron-coating technology to stabilize rice direct seeding onto puddled soil. Agron J 109:739–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yoshida S (1973) Effects of temperature on growth of the rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) in a controlled environment. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 19:299–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Yoshida S (1981) Fundamentals of rice crop science. IRRI, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  116. Yu J, Lai Y, Wu X, Wu G, Guo C (2016) Overexpression of OsEm1 encoding a group I. LEA protein confers enhanced drought tolerance in rice. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 478:703–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zeigler RS, Barclay A (2008) The relevance of rice. Rice 1:3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zeng D, Shi Y (2008) Preparation and application of a novel environmentally friendly organic seed coating for rice. Am Euras J Agron 1:19–25Google Scholar
  119. Zheng M, Tao Y, Hussain S, Jiang Q, Peng S, Huang J, Cui K, Nie L (2016) Seed priming in dry direct-seeded rice: consequences for emergence, seedling growth and associated metabolic events under drought stress. Plant Growth Regul 78:167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zhu G, Ye N, Zhang J (2009) Glucose-induced delay of seed germination in rice is mediated by the suppression of ABA catabolism rather than an enhancement of ABA biosynthesis. Plant Cell Physiol 50:644–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Farooq M, Kobayashi N, Wahid A, Ito O, Basra SMA (2009) Strategies for producing more rice with less water. Adv Agron 101:351–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hussain S, Zheng M, Khan F, Khaliq A, Fahad S, Peng S, Huang J, Cui K, Nie L (2015) Benefits of rice seed priming are offset permanently by prolonged storage and the storage conditions. Sci Rep 5:8101. Scholar
  3. Ibrahim EA (2016) Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds. J Plant Physiol 192:38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Paul S, Roychoudhury A (2017) Effect of seed priming with spermine/spermidine on transcriptional regulation of stress-responsive genes in salt-stressed seedlings of an aromatic rice cultivar. Plant Gene 11:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Wojtyla L, Lechowska K, Kubala S, Garnczarska M (2016) Molecular processes induced in primed seeds – increasing the potential to stabilize crop yields under drought conditions. J Plant Physiol 203:116–126PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. K. Sarkar
    • 1
  • A. K. Mukherjee
    • 2
  • K. Chakraborty
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Crop Physiology & BiochemistryICAR-National Rice Research InstituteCuttackIndia
  2. 2.Department of Crop ProtectionICAR-National Rice Research InstituteCuttackIndia

Personalised recommendations