Advances in the Concept and Methods of Seed Priming

  • Muhammad Waqas
  • Nicholas Emmanuel Korres
  • Muhammad Daud Khan
  • Abdul-Sattar Nizami
  • Farah Deeba
  • Iftikhar Ali
  • Haziq Hussain


The critical stages during the growth of crops are the uniform seed germination, early seedling growth, and uniform plant stand. Low crop yield is attributed to uneven seed germination and seedling growth. Therefore, the quality of seed can be improved through priming in addition to the field management techniques for better seed germination. Priming is a physiological technique of seed hydration and drying to enhance the pregerminative metabolic process for rapid germination, seedling growth, and final yield under normal as well as stressed conditions. The primed seeds show faster and uniform seed germination due to different enzyme activation, metabolic activities, biochemical process of cell repair, protein synthesis, and improvement of the antioxidant defense system as compared to unprimed seeds. There are many techniques of seed priming which are broadly divided into conventional methods (hydro-priming, osmo-priming, nutrient priming, chemical priming, bio-priming, and priming with plant growth regulators) and advanced methods (nano-priming and priming with physical agents). However, priming is strongly affected by various factors such as temperature, aeration, light, priming duration, and seed characteristics. This chapter highlights the priming mechanism and the available technologies as a tool for superficial seed germination and crop stand. An experiment with reference to the importance of priming toward vigor seed germination and seedling growth was conducted, and its results have been added in this chapter.


Seed priming Germination Antioxidant defense system Metabolic activities Crop growth 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Waqas
    • 1
  • Nicholas Emmanuel Korres
    • 2
  • Muhammad Daud Khan
    • 3
  • Abdul-Sattar Nizami
    • 4
  • Farah Deeba
    • 3
  • Iftikhar Ali
    • 5
  • Haziq Hussain
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Botanical and Environmental SciencesKohat University of Science and TechnologyKohatPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental SciencesUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology and Genetic EngineeringKohat University of Science and TechnologyKohatPakistan
  4. 4.Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES)King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesGomal UniversityDera Ismael KhanPakistan

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